Experiences of Fears Associated with Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Study of 329 Pregnant Women
Article first published online: 16 MAY 2002
Volume 29, Issue 2, pages 101–111, June 2002
How to Cite
Hanna-Leena Melender, R. (2002), Experiences of Fears Associated with Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Study of 329 Pregnant Women. Birth, 29: 101–111. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-536X.2002.00170.x
- Issue published online: 16 MAY 2002
- Article first published online: 16 MAY 2002
Background: Women may experience a variety of fears in association with pregnancy and childbirth. The purpose of this study was to describe their objects, causes, and manifestations, and to identify factors associated with the fears.
Methods: The study sample comprised 481 pregnant women in western Finland, of whom 329 (response rate 69%) completed a questionnaire. It was developed on the basis of semi-structured interviews and previous studies and had a 4-point scale and a dichotomous scale. Data were subjected to rotated factor analysis, and sum variables were produced. The effects of various demographic variables were calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.
Results: Of the 329 respondents, 78 percent expressed fears relating to pregnancy, to childbirth, or to both. Specific fears concerned childbirth, the child's and mother's well-being, health care staff, family life, and cesarean section. Causes of fears were negative mood, negative stories told by others, alarming information, diseases and child-related problems, and, in multiparas, negative experiences of previous pregnancy, childbirth, and baby's health and care; causes were significantly related to occupation. Fears were manifested as symptoms of stress, effects on everyday life, and a wish to have a cesarean section or to avoid pregnancy and childbirth; employment situation and elective cesarean section were the most important factors related to manifestation of fears. Parity and antenatal training were the most important variables related to objects of fears.
Conclusions: Women's fears that are associated with pregnancy and childbirth can be explained by different factors. It is important for perinatal health caregivers to ask pregnant women about their feelings related to the current pregnancy, childbirth, and future motherhood, and to give women who express fears an opportunity to discuss them, paying special attention to primiparas and to multiparas with negative experiences of earlier pregnancies. (BIRTH 29:2 June 2002)