The mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori escape the host immune response remains an important topic. Regulatory T cells appear to play a role in the persistence of the infection and the control of tissue damage. In the thought that the host genetic background influences the cross-talk between pathogens and hosts, the impact of cytokine polymorphisms on the outcome of H. pylori has been further delineated in the review period. On the other hand, several additional genes of H. pylori have been shown to participate in the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response to the infection. Finally, progress has been achieved in vaccine development, with new vaccine delivery systems and routes of immunization tested in animal models and human volunteers.