Background. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) often have a protracted course. However, all these patients are immunosuppressed and may have a high incidence of cutaneous malignancies.

Objective.To determine if combination therapy using topical imiquimod cream 5% and the oral cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor are useful in the therapy of squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCC in situ)/Bowen's disease in patients with long-standing CLL.

Methods. Five CLL patients with head and neck cutaneous SCC in situ, which met criteria for Bowen's disease, were treated with topical 5% topical imiquimod cream and an oral COX inhibitor, sulindac 200 mg twice a day.

Results. All patients showed clinical resolution and histologic clearing of the tumors after 16 weeks of therapy.

Conclusion. The local immune modulator, 5% imiquimod, in combination with a COX inhibitor, with its many potential antitumor effects may stimulate the innate and possibly the adaptive immune responses to clear these malignancies.