• 1
    Ray NF, Chan JK, Thamer M, et al. Medical expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures in the United States in 1995: report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12: 2435.
  • 2
    Hoerger T, Downs K, Lakshmanan M, et al. Healthcare use among US women aged 45 and older: total costs and costs for selected postmenopausal health risks. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 1999;8: 107789.
  • 3
    Chrischilles E, Shireman T, Wallace R. Costs and health effects of osteoporotic fractures. Bone 1994;15: 37786.
  • 4
    Phillips S, Fox N, Jacobs J, et al. The direct medical costs of osteoporosis for American women aged 45 and older, 1986. Bone 1988;9: 2719.
  • 5
    Praemer A, Furner S, Rice DP. Musculoskeletal conditions in the United States (1st ed.). Chicago: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, 1992.
  • 6
    Shen T, Howe LH, Lumpkin JR. Osteoporosis in Illinois: Analysis of Hospital Discharge Records from 1992 to 1995. Springfield (IL): Illinois Department of Public Health, 1997 Dec.
  • 7
    Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. PHC4 Issue Brief—Osteoporosis Facts and Figures [Internet]. Harrisburg: The Council, 1997 Nov 19 accessed 2000 Mar 23. Avail-able from:
  • 8
    Max W, Sinnot P, Kao C, et al. The burden of osteoporosis in California, 1998. Osteoporos Int 2002;13: 493500.
  • 9
    Kamel HK, Hussain MS, Tariq S, et al. Failure to diagnose and treat osteoporosis in elderly patients hospitalized with hip fracture. Am J Med 2000; 109: 3268.
  • 10
    Gehlbach SH, Bigelow C, Heimisdottir M, et al. Recognition of vertebral fracture in a clinical setting. Osteoporos Int 2000;11: 57782.
  • 11
    Melton LJ III, Thamer M, Ray NF, et al. Fractures attributable to osteoporosis: report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12: 1623.
  • 12
    National Osteoporosis Foundation. America's Bone Health: The State of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in Our Nation. Washington: The Foundation, 2002.
  • 13
    Tosteson AN, Jonsson B, Grima DT, et al. Challenges for model-based economic evaluations of postmenopausal osteoporosis interventions. Osteoporos Int 2001;12: 84957.
  • 14
    Campbell PR. Population Projections for States by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1995 to 2025. PPL-47. Washington: US Bureau of the Census, Population Division, 1996 Oct accessed 2002 Apr 30.
  • 15
    National Center for Health Statistics. US Decennial Life Tables for 1989–91. Vol. II. State Life Tables No. 19, Florida. Hyattsville, (MD): The Center for Disease Control, 1998.
  • 16
    Keene GS, Parker MJ, Pryor GA. Mortality and morbidity after hip fractures. BMJ 1993;307: 124850.
  • 17
    Florida Hospital Inpatient Data File, 1998. Tallahassee (FL): State Center for Health Statistics, State of Florida Agency for Health Care Administration, 1998.
  • 18
    Melton LJ III, Lane AW, Cooper C, et al. Prevalence and incidence of vertebral deformities. Osteoporos Int 1993;3: 1139.
  • 19
    Melton LJ III, Chrischilles EA, Cooper C, et al. Perspective: how many women have osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 1992;7: 100510.
  • 20
    Hip Fracture Outcomes in People Age Fifty and Over. OTA-BP-H-120. NTIS Order PB94-107653. Washington: United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment, 1994:195.
  • 21
    Osteoporosis: review of the evidence for prevention, diagnosis and treatment and cost-effectiveness analysis [introduction]. Osteoporos Int 1998;8: S780.
  • 22
    Cooper C, Campion G, Melton LJ III. Hip fractures in the elderly: a world-wide projection. Osteoporos Int 1992;2: 2859.
  • 23
    Clark AP, Schuttinga JA. Targeted estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy for osteoporosis: calculation of health care cost savings. Osteoporos Int 1992;2: 195200.
  • 24
    Jacobsen SJ, Cooper C, Gottlieb MS, et al. Hospitalization with vertebral fracture among the aged: a national population-based study, 1986–1989. Epidemiology 1992;3: 5158.
  • 25
    Stucki B. Can Aging Baby Boomers Avoid the Nursing Home? Washington: American Council of Life Insurers (ACLI), 2000 Apr.
  • 26
    MetLife Market Survey on Nursing Home and Home Care Costs. Westport (CT): Metlife Mature Market Institute, 2002 Apr.
  • 27
    Consumer Price Index, US. City Average, Medical Care Component. Washington: Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor 2002.
  • 28
    Bohannon A, Hanlon J, Landerman R, et al. Association of race and other potential risk factors with nonvertebral fractures in community-dwelling elderly women. Am J Epidemiol 1999;149: 10029.
  • 29
    Baron JA, Barrett J, Malenka D, et al. Racial differences in fracture risk. Epidemiology 1995;5: 427.
  • 30
    Burge RT, Puleo E, Gehlbach S, et al. Inpatient hospital and post-acute care for vertebral fractures in women. Value Health 2002;5: 30111.
  • 31
    Bauer RL, Deyo RA. Low risk of vertebral fracture in Mexican American women. Arch Intern Med 1987;147: 14379.
  • 32
    Ellis AA, Trent RB. Hospitalized fall injuries and race in California. Injury Prev 2001;7: 31620.
  • 33
    Gehlbach S, May S, Heimisdottir M, et al. Unrecognized costs of osteoporosis-related vertebral fracture [abstract F559]. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12(Suppl 1):S366.
  • 34
    Papaioannou A, Adachi J, Parkinson W, et al. Lengthy hospitalization associated with vertebral fractures despite control for comorbid conditions. Osteoporos Int 2001;12: 8704.