• 1
    Simpson BA. Spinal cord stimulation. Pain Rev 1994;1:199 230.
  • 2
    Barolat G. Current status of epidural spinal cord stimulation. Neurosurg Q 1995;5:98 124.
  • 3
    Melzack R & Wall PD. Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science 1965;150:971 978.
  • 4
    Meyerson BA. Electrostimulation procedures: effects, presumed rationale, and possible mechanisms. In:Bonica JJ, Lindblom U, Iggo A eds. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy.Vol 5.New York:Raven Press,1983;495 534.
  • 5
    Meyerson BA. Electric stimulation of the spinal cord and brain. In:Bonica JJ, Loeser JD, Chapman RC, Fordyce WE eds. The Management of Pain.2nd edn .Philadelphia:Lea and Febiger,1990;1862 1877.
  • 6
    Gybels JM & Sweet WH. Neurosurgical treatment of persistent pain. In:Gildenberg PL eds. Pain and Headache Basel:Karger,1989;442.
  • 7
    Law JD. Targeting a spinal stimulator to treat the ‘failed back surgery syndrome'. Appl Neurophysiol 1987;50:437 438.
  • 8
    Siegfried J & Lazorthes Y. Long-term follow-up of dorsal cord stimulation for chronic pain syndrome after multiple lumbar operations. Appl Neurophysiol 1982;45:201 204.
  • 9
    Meglio M, Cioni B, Rossi GF. Spinal cord stimulation of chronic pain. A 9-year experience. J Neurosurg 1989;70:519 524.
  • 10
    Kumar K, Nath R, Wyant GM. Treatment of chronic pain by epidural spinal cord stimulation: a 10-year experience. J Neurosurg 1991;5:402 407.
  • 11
    North RB, Ewend MG, Lawton MT, Kidd DH, Piantadosi S. Failed back surgery syndrome: five ′′′′ year follow-up after spinal cord stimulator implantation Neurosurgery 1991;28:692 699.
  • 12
    Linderoth B & Meyerson BA. Dorsal column stimulation: modulation of somatosensory and autonomic function. In:McMahon SB, Wall PD eds. The Neurobiology of Pain Seminars in the Neurosciences.Vol 7,London:Academic Press,1995;263 277.
  • 13
    Cook AW, Oygar A, Baggenstos P, Pacheco S, Kleriga E. Vascular disease of extremities. Electrical stimulation of spinal cord and posterior roots. N Y State J Med 1976;76:366 368.
  • 14
    Augustinsson LE, Linderoth B, Mannheimer C. Spinal cord stimulation in various ischaemic conditions. In:Illis L, eds. Spinal Cord Dysfunction. Vol III Functional Stimulation.Oxford:Oxford Medical Publications,1992;272 295.
  • 15
    Augustinsson LE, Linderoth B, Eliasson T, Mannheimer C. Spinal cord stimulation in peripheral vascular disease and angina pectoris. In:Gildenberg Ph, Tasker R. Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.New York:McGraw-Hill,1997;1973 78.
  • 16
    Herreros J, Lazorthes Y, Boccalon H, Galley D, Broggi Geds. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Peripheral Vascular Diseases.Madrid.:Editorial Libro del Año,1994
  • 17
    Horsch S & Claeys Leds. Spinal Cord Stimulation II: An Innovative Method in the Treatment of PVD and Angina.Darmstadt:Steinkopff-Verlag GmbH,1995.
  • 18
    Mannheimer C, Augustinsson LE, Carlsson CA, Manheim K, Wilhelmsson C. Epidural spinal electrical stimulation in severe angina pectoris. Br Heart J 1988;59:56 61.
  • 19
    Augustinsson LE, Linderoth B, Mannheimer C, Eliasson T. Spinal Cord Stimulation in Cardiovascular Disease.: Gildenberg Ph, ed. Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 1995;6:157 165.
  • 20
    Eliasson T, Augustinsson LE, Mannheimer C. Spinal cord stimulation in severe angina pectoris—presentation of current studies, indications and clinical experience. Pain 1996;65:169 179.
  • 21
    Jessurun GAJ, DeJongste MJL, Blanksma PK. Current views on neurostimulation in the treatment of cardiac ischemic syndromes. Pain 1996;66:109 116.
  • 22
    Linderoth B. Spinal cord stimulation in ischemia and ischemic pain: possible mechanisms of action. In:Horsch S, Claeys L, eds. Spinal Cord Stimulation An Innovative Method in the Treatment of PVD and Angina Darmstadt:Steinkopff-Verlag,1995;19 35.
  • 23
    Linderoth B. Dorsal column stimulation and pain: experimental studies of putative neurochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms.Thesis. 67. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm1992.
  • 24
    Dubuisson D. Effect of dorsal-column stimulation on gelatinosa and marginal neurons of cat spinal cord. J Neurosurg 1989;70:257 265.
  • 25
    Foreman RD, Beall JE, Applebaum AE, Coulter JD, Willis WD. Effects of dorsal column stimulation on primate spinothalamic tract neurons, J. Neurophysiol 1976;39:534 546.
  • 26
    Willis WD. The pain system: the neural basis of nociceptive transmission in the mammalian nervous system.New York:Karger,1985;194 212.
  • 27
    Larson SJ, Sances A, Riegel DH, Meyer GA, Dallmann DE, Swiontek T. Neurophysiological effects of dorsal column stimulation in man and monkey, J. Neurosurg 1974;41:271 223.
  • 28
    Campbell JN, Davis KD, Meyer RA, North RB. The mechanism by which dorsal column stimulation affects pain: evidence for a new hypothesis. Pain 1990;(Suppl. 5):228 (Abstract).
  • 29
    Lindblom U & Meyerson BA. Influence on touch, vibration and cutaneous pain of dorsal column stimulation in man. Pain 1975;1:257 270.
  • 30
    Lindblom U & Meyerson BA. Mechanoreceptive and nociceptive thresholds during dorsal column stimulation in man. In:Bonica JJ, Albe-Fessard D eds. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy.Vol 1.New York:Raven Press,1976;469 474.
  • 31
    Price DD. The use of experimental pain in evaluating the effects of dorsal column stimulation on clinical pain. Pain 1991;45:225 226.
  • 32
    Shimoji K, Matsuki M, Shimuzu H et al. Low-frequency, weak extradural stimulation in the management of intractable pain. Br J Anaesth 1977;49:1081 1085.
  • 33
    Shimoji K, Matsuki M, Shimzu H, Maruyama Y. Influence of epidural dorsal cord stimulation on spinal evoked potential, In:Hosobuchi Y, Corbin T eds. Indications for Spinal Cord Stimulation Proceedings f a Symposium.New York:Excerpta Medica,1981:5 96.
  • 34
    Bantli H, Bloedel JR, Phudhiporn T. Supraspinal interactions resulting from experimental dorsal column stimulation. J Neurosurg 1975;42:296 300.
  • 35
    Saadé NE, Tabet MS, Banna NR, Atweh SF, Jabbur SJ. Inhibition of nociceptive evoked activity in spinal neurons through a dorsal column-brainstem-spinal loop. Brain Res 1985;339:115 188.
  • 36
    Saadé NE, Atweh SF, Tabet MS, Jabbur SJ. Inhibition of nociceptive withdrawal flexion reflexes through a dorsal column-brainstem-spinal loop. Brain Res 1985;335:306 308.
  • 37
    Saadé NE & Jabbur SJ. Dorsal column influences, through the brainstem, on spinal nociceptive input. In:Development, Organization, and Processing in Somatosensory Pathways.New York:Alan R Liss Inc,1985;367 373.
  • 38
    Saadé NE, Tabet MS, Soueidan SA, Bitar M, Atweh SF, Jabbur SJ. Supraspinal modulation of nociception in awake rats by stimulation of the dorsal column nuclei. Brain Res 1986;369:307 310.
  • 39
    Saadé NE, Atweh SF, Jabbur SJ, Wall PD. Effects of lesions in the anterolateral columns and dorsolateral funiculi on self-mutilation behavior in rats. Pain 1990;42:313 321.
  • 40
    Roberts MHT & Rees H. Physiological basis of spinal cord stimulation. Pain Rev 1994;1:184 198.
  • 41
    Stiller C-O, Linderoth B, O'connor WT et al. Repeated spinal cord stimulation decreases the extracellular level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the periaqueductal gray matter of freely moving rats. Brain Res 1995;699:231 241.
  • 42
    Hautvast RVM, TerHorst GJ, DeJong BM et al. Relative changes in regional cerebral blood flow during spinal cord stimulation in patients with refractory angina pectoris. Eur J Neurosci 1997;9:1178 1183.
  • 43
    DeJongste MJL, Hautvast RVM, Ruiters MHJ, TerHorst GJ. Spinal cord stimulation and the induction of c-fos and heat shock protein in the central nervous system of rats. Eur Heart J 1994;15:284.
  • 44
    Seltzer Z, Dubner R, Shir Y. A novel behavioral model of neuropathic pain disorders produced in rats by partial sciatic nerve injury. Pain 1990;43:205 218.
  • 45
    Bennett GJ & Xie Y-K. A peripheral mononeuropathy in rat that produces disorders of pain sensation like those seen in man. Pain 1988;33:87 107.
  • 46
    Gazelius B, Cui J-G, Svensson M, Meyerson BA, Linderoth B. Photochemically induced ischemic lesion of the rat sciatic nerve. A novel method providing high incidence of mononeuropathy. NeuroReport 1996;7:2619 2623.
  • 47
    Meyerson BA, Ren B, Herregodts P, Linderoth B. Spinal cord stimulation in animal models of mononeuropathy: Effects on the withdrawal response and the flexor reflex. Pain 1995;61:229 243.
  • 48
    Campbell JN, Raja SN, Meyer RA, McKinnon SE. Myelinated afferents signal the hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury. Pain 1988;32:89 94.
  • 49
    Woolf CJ. The pathophysiology of peripheral neuropathic pain – abnormal peripheral input and abnormal central processing. In:Meyerson BA, Broggi G. Martin-Rodriguez J, Ostertag C, Sindou M eds. Adv Stereotact Funct Neurosurg.Vol 10.Acta Neurochir (Suppl) 1993;58:125 130.
  • 50
    Woolf CJ & Doubell TP. The pathophysiology of chronic pain – increased sensitivity to low threshold Aβ-fiber inputs. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1994;4:525 534.
  • 51
    Shir Y & Seltzer Z. A-fibers mediate mechanical hyperesthesia and allodynia and C-fibers mediate thermal hyperalgesia in a new model of causalgia from pain disorders in rats. Neurosci Lett 1990;115:62 67.
  • 52
    Bennett GJ. An animal model of neuropathic pain: a review. Muscle Nerve 1993;16:1040 1048.
  • 53
    Sotgiu ML, Biella G, Riva L. Poststimulus after discharges of spinal WDR and NS units in rats with chronic nerve constriction. NeuroReport 1995;6:1021 1024.
  • 54
    Cook AJ & Woolf CJ. Cutaneous receptive field and morphological properties of hamstring flexor? Motoneurons in the rat. J Physiol 1985;364:249 263.
  • 55
    Ren B, Linderoth B, Meyerson BA. Effects of spinal cord stimulation on the flexor reflex and involvement of supraspinal mechanisms: an experimental study in mononeuropathic rats. J Neurosurg 1996;84:244 249.
  • 56
    Yakhnitsa V, Linderoth B, Meyerson BA. Spinal cord stimulation attenuates dorsal horn neuronal hyperexcitability in a rat model of mononeuropathy. Pain 1999;79:223 233.
  • 57
    Hawkes CH, Fawcett D, Cooke ED, Emson PC, Paul EA, Bowcock SA. Dorsal column stimulation in multiple sclerosis: Effects on bladder, leg blood flow and peptides. Appl Neurophysiol 1981;44:62 70.
  • 58
    Tonelli L, Setti T, Falasca A et al. Investigation on cerebrospinal fluid opioids and neurotransmitters related to spinal cord stimulation. Appl Neurophysiol 1988;51:324 332.
  • 59
    Meyerson BA, Bothius J, Terenius L, Wahlström A. Endorphine mechanisms in pain relief with intracerebral and dorsal column stimulation, in 3rd Meeting of the European Society of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.Freiburg, Germany1977 (Abstract).
  • 60
    Han JS, Chen XH, Sun SL et al. Effect of low- and high-frequency TENS on Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe and dynorphin A immunoreactivity in human lumbar CSF. Pain 1991;47:295 298.
  • 61
    Linderoth B, Gazelius B, Franck J, Brodin E. Dorsal column stimulation induces release of serotonin and substance P in the cat dorsal horn. Neurosurgery 1992;31:289 297.
  • 62
    Meyerson BA, Brodin E, Linderoth B. Possible neurohumoral mechanisms in CNS stimulation for pain suppression. Appl Neurophysiol 1985;48:175 180.
  • 63
    Hökfelt T, Zhang X, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z. Messenger plasticity in primary sensory neurons following axotomy and its functional implications. TINS 1994;17:22 30.
  • 64
    Shia T-J, Cui J-G, Meyerson BA, Linderoth B, Hökfelt T. Regulation of galanin and neuropeptide Y in dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn in mononeuropathic rat models: Possible relation to tactile hypersensitivity. Neuroscience 1999; in press.
  • 65
    Duggan AW & Foong FW. Bicuculline and spinal inhibition produced by dorsal column stimulation in the cat. Pain 1985;22:249 259.
  • 66
    Linderoth B, Stiller CO, Gunasekera L, O'connor WT, Ungerstedt U, Brodin E. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is released in the dorsal horn by electrical spinal cord stimulation: an in vivo microdialysis study in the rat. Neurosurg 1994;34:484 489.
  • 67
    Simpson RD, Robertson CS, Goodman JC. Glycine: a potential mediator of electrically induced pain modification. Biomed Lett 1993;48:193 207.
  • 68
    Stiller CO, Cui J-G, O'connor WT, Brodin E, Meyerson BA, Linderoth B. Release of GABA in the dorsal horn and suppression of tactile allodynia by spinal cord stimulation in mononeuropathic rats. Neurosurgery 1996;39:367 375.
  • 69
    Hao J. Photochemically induced spinal ischemia: behavioral, electrophysiological and morphological studies with special emphasis on sensory function.Thesis, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm1993.
  • 70
    Cui J-G, Linderoth B, Meyerson BA. Effects of spinal cord stimulation on touch-evoked allodynia involve GABAergic mechanisms. An experimental study in the mononeuropathic rat. Pain 1996;66:287 295.
  • 71
    Cui JG, O'connor WT, Ungerstedt U, Meyerson BA, Linderoth B. Spinal cord stimulation attenuates augmented dorsal horn release of excitatory amino acids in mononeuropathy via a GABAergic mechanism. Pain 1997;73:87 95.
  • 72
    Kangra I, Jing M, Randic M. Actions of (-) -baclofen on rat dorsal horn neurons. Brain Res 1991;562:265 275.
  • 73
    Cui J-G, Sollevi A, Linderoth B, Meyerson BA. Adenosine receptor activation suppresses tactile hypersensitivity and potentiates effect of spinal cord in mononeuropathic rats. Neurosci Lett 1997;223:173 176.
  • 74
    Cui JG, Meyerson BA, Sollevi A, Linderoth B. Effects of spinal cord stimulation on tactile hypersensitivity in mononeuropathic rats is potentiated by GABAB and adenosine receptor activation. Neurosci Lett 1998;247:183 186.
  • 75
    Meyerson BA, Cui JG, Yakhnitsa V et al. Modulation of spinal pain mechanisms by spinal cord stimulation and the potential role of adjuvant pharmacotherapy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1997;68:129 140.
  • 76
    Schoebel FC, Frazier OH, Jessurun GAJ et al. Refractory angina pectoris in end-stage coronary artery disease—Evolving therapeutic concepts. Am Heart J 1997;134:587 602.
  • 77
    Gonzalez-Darder JM, Gonzalez-Martinez V, Canela-Moya P. Cervical spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of severe angina pectoris. Neurosurgery Q 1998;8:16 23.
  • 78
    Mannheimer C, Eliasson T, Andersson B et al. Effects of spinal cord stimulation in angina pectoris induced by pacing and possible mechanisms of action. Br Med J 1993;307:477 480.
  • 79
    Sanderson JE, Brooksby P, Waterhouse D, Palmer RBG, Neubauer K. Epidural spinal electrical stimulation for severe angina: a study of its effects on symptoms, exercise tolerance and degree of ischaemia. Eur Heart J 1992;13:628 633.
  • 80
    Chandler MJ, Brennan TJ, Garrison DW, Kim KS, Schwartz PJ, Foreman RDA. Mechanism of cardiac pain suppression by spinal cord stimulation: implications for patients with angina pectoris. Eur Heart J 1993;14:96 105.
  • 81
    Eliasson T, Albertsson P, Håardhammar P, Emanuelsson H, Augustinsson LE, Mannheimer C. Spinal cord stimulation in angina pectoris with normal coronary arteriograms. Coron Artery Dis 1993;4:819 827.
  • 82
    Norrsell H, Eliasson T, Mannheimer C et al. Effects of pacing-induced myocardial stress and spinal cord stimulation on whole body and cardiac norepinephrine spillover. Eur Heart J 1997;18:1890 1896.
  • 83
    Eliasson T, Mannheimer C, Waagstein F et al. Myocardial turnover of endogenous opioids and CGRP in the human heart and the effects of spinal cord stimulation. Cardiology 1998;89:170 177.
  • 84
    Blair RW, Weber RN, Foreman RD. Responses of thoracic spinothalamic neurons to intracardiac injection of bradykinin in the monkey. Circ Res 1982;51:83 94.
  • 85
    Ammons WS, Girardot MN, Foreman RD. Effects of intracardiac bradykinin on T2–T3 medial spinothalamic cells. Am J Physiol 1985;249:R147 R152.
  • 86
    Linderoth B, Fedorcsak I, Meyerson BA. Peripheral vasodilatation after spinal cord stimulation: animal studies of putative effector mechanisms. Neurosurgery 1991;28:187 195.
  • 87
    Linderoth B, Fedorcsak I, Meyerson BA. Is vasodilatation following dorsal column stimulation mediated by antidromic activation of small diameter afferents? Acta Neurchir (Suppl )(Wien) 1989;46:99 101.
  • 88
    Linderoth B, Gunasekera L, Meyerson B. Effects of sympathectomy on skin and muscle microcirculation during dorsal column stimulation: animal studies. Neurosurgery 1991;29:874 879.
  • 89
    Linderoth B, Herregodts P, Meyerson B. Sympathetic mediation of peripheral vasodilatation induced by spinal cord stimulation: animal studies of the role of cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes. Neurosurgery 1994;35:711 719.
  • 90
    Croom JE. Mechanisms for cutaneous vasodilatation due to electrical stimulation of the dorsal surface of the spinal cord.Thesis.University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City1996;173.
  • 91
    Croom JE, Barron KW, Chandler MJ, Foreman RD. Cutaneous blood flow increases in the rat hind paw during dorsal column stimulation. Brain Res 1996;728:281 286.
  • 92
    Croom JE, Foreman RD, Chandler MJ, Barron KW. Cutaneous vasodilation during dorsal column stimulation is mediated by dorsal roots and CGRP. Am J Physiol 1997;272:H950 H957.
  • 93
    Barron KW, Linderoth B, Chandler MJ, Foreman RD. Does dorsal column stimulation (DCS) at clinical current intensity elicit antidromic mediated cutaneous vasodilatation? Society for Neuroscience 1997;23:1954(Abstract 760.6).
  • 94
    Adriaensen H, Gybels J, Handwerker HO, Van Hees J. Response properties of thin myelinated (A-δ) fibers in human skin nerves. J Physiol 1983;49:11 122.
  • 95
    Ardell JL. Structure and function of mammalian intrinsic neurons. In:Armour JA, Ardell JL., eds. Neurocardiology.New York:Oxford University Press,1994;95 114.
  • 96
    Armour JA. Myocardial ischaemia and the cardiac nervous system. Cardiovasc Res 1999;41:41 54.
  • 97
    Yuan B-X, Ardell JL, Hopkins DA, Armour JA. Gross and microscopic anatomy of canine intrinsic cardiac neurons. Anat Rec 1994;239:75 87.
  • 98
    Huang MH, Ardell JL, Hanna B, Wolf S, Armour JA. Effects of transitory coronary artery occlusion on canine intrinsic cardiac neeuronal activity. Integr Physiol Behav Sci 1993;28:5 21.
  • 99
    Huang MH, Wolf SG, Armour JA. Ventricular arrhythmia induced by chemically modified intrinsic cardiac neurones. Cardiovasc Res 1994;28:636 642.
  • 100
    Armour JA, Collier K, Kimber G, Ardell JL. Differential selectivity of cardiac neurons in separate intrathoracic ganglia. Am J Physiol 1998;274:R939 R949.
  • 101
    Butler CK, Watson-Wright WM, Wilkinson M, Johnston DE, Armour JA. Cardiac effects produced by long-term stimulation of acutely decentralized thoracic autonomic ganglia and cardiac nerves: implications for inter–neuronal interactions within the thoracic autonomic nervous system. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1988;66:175 184.
  • 102
    Foreman RD, Ardell JL, Armour JA et al. High thoracic spinal cord stimulation attenuates intrinsic cardiac neuronal activity in the dog: Implications for treating refractory angina pectoris. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1998;24(part I):394 (No. 154:19.).
  • 103
    Freedman RR, Sabharwal SC, Desai N, Wenig P, Mayes M. Increased a-Adrenergic responsiveness in idiopatic Raynaud's disease. Arthritis Rheum 1989;32:61 65.
  • 104
    Bunker CB, Terenghi G, Springall DR, Polak JM, Dowd PM. Deficiency of calcitonin gene-related peptide in Raynaud's phenomenon. Lancet 1990;336:1530 1533.
  • 105
    Stiller C-O. Neurotransmission in CNS-regions involved in pain modulation: Neurochemical effects of analgesic drugs and spinal cord stimulation in the dorsal horn and midbrain periaqueductal gray matter of the rat.Thesis.Karolinska Institute, Stockholm1997.
  • 106
    Linderoth B. Physiological mechanisms of spinal cord stimulation for the relief of pain. In:de Vera JA, Parris W, Erdine S, eds. Management of Pain – A World Perspective.Bologna:Monduzzi Editore,1998;405 411.