• Arthur, W. 2001. Developmental drive: an important determinant of the direction of phenotypic evolution. Evol. Dev. 3: 271278.
  • Arthur, W., and Farrow, M. 1999. The pattern of variation in centipede segment number as an example of developmental constraint in evolution. J. Theor. Biol. 200: 183191.
  • Beldade, P., Koops, K., and Brakefield, P.M. 2002. Developmental constraints versus flexibility in morphological evolution. Nature 416: 844847.
  • Dworkin, E. M., Tanda, S., and Larsen, E. 2001. Are entrenched characters developmentally constrained? Creating biramous limbs in an insect. Evol. Dev. 3: 424431.
  • Maynard Smith, J., Burian, R., Kauffman, S., Alberch, P., Campbell, J., Goodwin, B., et al. 1985. Developmental constraints and evolution. Q. Rev. Biol. 60: 265287.
  • Schwenk, K. 1995. A utilitarian approach to evolutionary constraint. Zoology 98: 251262.
  • Wright, S. 1932. The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution. Proc. 6th Int. Congr. Genet. 1: 356366.