This study explored subjectively perceived quality of life and related factors of elderly nursing home residents. In this study, 161 residents aged 65 and older were selected from 10 nursing homes in Southern Taiwan. The results showed: (1) the mean score of quality of life was 15.86 and the standardized score was 52.87, a medium rating for the overall sample; (2) different educational levels, and socioeconomic status were significantly different in the quality of life, the other sociodemographic variables were not significantly different in the quality of life. (3) length of residence in the nursing home was significantly negative relative to the quality of life. Physical function, activities of daily living, social support from nurses, social support from nursing aides, social support from families, and frequency of family interaction were significantly positive relatative to the quality of life. (4) Activies of daily living, social support from nurses, socioeconomic status, and physical function were the significant predictors in the quality of life, which explained 40.1% of the total amount of variance. Activities of daily living, social support from nursing aids, socioeconomic status, physical function and frequency of interaction with family were the significant predictors in the quality of life, which explained 39.5% of the total amount of variance. Results generated from this study may act as a reference for the staff of nursing homes to understand the quality of life and related factors among elderly residents. This study also acts as a reference for future intervention programs in this field.