Factors Associated with Breast Self-Examination Among Jordanian Women


  • Wasileh Petro-Nustus Sc.D., R.N., and,

  • Blanche I. Mikhail DNSc, R.N., C.N.S.

Wasileh Petro-Nustus is Dean and Associate Professor, The Hashemite University, Zarka Jordan. Blanche I. Mikhail is Professor and Graduate Program Coordinator, California State University, Bakersfield, California.
  Address correspondence to Wasileh Petro-Nustas, Faculty of Nursing, The Hashemite University, P.O. Box 13133, Zarka, Jordan. E-mail: wasipn@hu.edu.jo


The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational, descriptive study was to investigate factors and beliefs that may be related to the practice of breast self-examination (BSE) among a group of Jordanian women. The sample consisted of 519 women from two major universities in Jordan. About 36% of the sample were university employees and 64% were graduate and undergraduate students. Stratified random sampling was used to enroll the undergraduate students while graduate students and employees were selected by convenience sampling. The study instrument was an adapted version of Champion's Revised Health Belief Model Scale (CRHBMS). The results were analyzed using a chi-square test and a stepwise multiple regression. The main findings indicate that although the majority of the sample population (67%) had heard/read about BSE, only a quarter of them reported that they had ever practiced BSE in the previous 12 months, and only 7% had performed it on a regular monthly basis. Confidence, motivation, susceptibility, and fewer barriers were variables that showed a positive association with BSE practice in the previous year, while benefits, susceptibility, and motivation influenced the intention to perform BSE in the future. Women's age, level of education, having heard or read about breast tumors, and personal history of breast tumors were also found to be significant predictors of BSE practice.