Abstract Most deaths associated with bicycle riding are reported in those over the age of 16 and the highest death rate per million trips is reported in those over the age of 50, yet most efforts to reduce deaths among bicycle riders have focused on children. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a new instrument designed to assess knowledge of bicycle laws and perception of risk related to specific host behaviors and agents of injury. A pilot study using a descriptive correlational design was conducted among a convenience sample of 104 adult bicycle riders. A 25-item questionnaire was administered to participants (10 knowledge items, 15 belief items). There were no significant differences in total knowledge or belief score for gender, age group, riding frequency, education, or formal bicycle training. Significant differences were found for responses to individual items on both scales. Psychometric testing indicated that items on the knowledge scale were independent. Psychometric testing on the belief scale suggested three underlying constructs measuring beliefs about riding behavior, agents of injury, and user burden. Bicycle riders with previous safety training had significantly different scores on the riding behavior and user burden subscales.