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Administrative Characteristics of Comprehensive Prenatal Case Management Programs


L. Michele Issel, PhD, RN, Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health (MC 923), 1603 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612. E-mail:


Abstract  The purpose of this study was to examine comprehensive prenatal case management programs in terms of organizational, program, and process characteristics. Data from 66 program surveys of government agencies were used. Organizational capacity was measured as extent of organizational change and extent of interagency agreements. Program data included age and size of the program, reasons for having case management, and funding diversity. Process data were eight types of interventions.

The most highly rated reason for having case management was to improve client outcomes. The greatest organizational change was in the area of the organizational structure, followed by financial status and types of services provided. Contracts with other agencies were rare. Agencies with more interagency contacts reported higher levels of change in the case management department and turnover among mid-level managers. Older programs had fewer employees. Approximately 49% of client contacts were not billed to Medicaid. Larger programs had significantly less time allocated to emotional support and coaching.

Data on organizational characteristics, program, and process variables provide insights into comprehensive case management. Relationships among these variables underscore the importance of studying client outcomes within the context of program and organizational idiosyncrasies. Future studies of comprehensive prenatal case management should focus on cross-level questions.