Abstract: Our objective was to study possible etiologic factors of asymmetric periflexural exanthem of childhood (APEC) among a large panel of microbiologic agents not yet investigated. To do so, we designed a prospective case-control study using throat, stool, blood, and skin samples, and enlisted 37 children with APEC and 37 age-matched controls without eruption seen consecutively from February 1995 to April 1996 from a mixed referral center and community-based population. No interventions were done. Used as the main outcome measure was the differences in the two groups for microbiologic investigations. No significant statistical differences between cases and controls for virus and bacteria investigated were found. No microorganism was identified as a possible etiologic agent in any of the APEC patients. APEC is not a nonspecific cutaneous eruptive pattern to several common microbiologic agents. More sophisticated molecular approaches are needed to address its etiology.