• 1
    Weiner JP. Forecasting the effects of health reform on US physician workforce requirement: evidence from HMO staffing patterns. JAMA. 1994;272:222 30.
  • 2
    Cooper RA. Seeking a balanced physician workforce for the 21st century. JAMA. 1994;272:680 7.
  • 3
    DeMaria AN, Lee TH, Leon DF, et al. Effect of managed care on cardiovascular specialists: involvement, attitudes and practice adaptations. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996;28:1884 95.
  • 4
    Kravitz RL & Greenfield S. Variations in resource utilization among medical specialties and systems of care. Annu Rev Public Health. 1995;16:431 45.
  • 5
    Greenfield S, Nelson EC, Zubkoff M, et al. Variations in resource utilization among medical specialties and systems of care: results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA. 1992;267:1624 30.
  • 6
    Kassirer JP. Access to specialty care. N Engl J Med. 1994;331: 1151 3.
  • 7
    Rhee SO, Luke RD, Lyons TF, Payne BC. Domain of practice and the quality of physician performance. Med Care. 1981;19:14 23.
  • 8
    Hoechst Marion Roussel Managed Care Digest Series. Kansas City, Mo: Hoechst Marion Roussel; 1997.
  • 9
    Group Health Association of America. Patterns in HMO Enrollment. Washington, DC: Group Health Association of America, June 1995.
  • 10
    Jensen GA, Morrisey MA, Gaffney S, Liston DK. The new dominance of managed care: insurance trends in the 1990s. Health Aff. 1997;16:125 36.
  • 11
    Recommendations of the American Society of Internal Medicine. Patient Access to Internist-Subspecialists in Gatekeeper Health Plans; ASIM, Washington, DC. August 1995.
  • 12
    Committee of the American College of Rheumatology Council on Health Care Research. Role of specialty care for chronic diseases: a report from an Ad Hoc committee of the American College of Rheumatology. Mayo Clin Proc. 1996;71:1179 81.
  • 13
    Nih Consensus Development Panel on Helicobacter pylori in Peptic Ulcer Disease. Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease. JAMA. 1994;272:65 9.
  • 14
    American Cancer Society. 1989 survey of physicians' attitudes and practices in early cancer detection. CA Cancer J Clin. 1990;40:77 101.
  • 15
    National Institutes of Health. The treatment of primary breast cancer: management of local disease. Consensus Development Conference, Bethesda, Md, June 5, 1979.
  • 16
    National Institutes of Health. Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Consensus Development Conference, Bethesda, Md, July 14–16, 1980.
  • 17
    National Institutes of Health. Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Consensus Development Conference, Bethesda, Md, September 9–11, 1985.
  • 18
    National Institutes of Health. Treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Consensus Development Conference, Bethesda, Md, June 18–21, 1990.
  • 19
    Gunnar RM, Bourdillon PD, Dixon DW, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the early management of patients with acute myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Procedures. Circulation. 1990;82: 664 707.
  • 20
    Markson LE, Cosler LE, Turner BJ. Implications of generalists' slow adoption of zidovudine in clinical practice. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:1497 504.
  • 21
    Mauskopf J, Turner BJ, Markson LE, Houchens RL, Fanning TR, McKee L. Patterns of ambulatory care for AIDS patients, and association with emergency room use. Health Serv Res. 1994;29: 489 510.
  • 22
    Braun MM & Weisner PJ. Tuberculosis prevention practices and perspectives of physicians in DeKalb County, Ga. Public Health Rep. 1994;109:259 65.
  • 23
    Vollmer WM, O'hollaren M, Ettinger KM, et al. Specialty differences in the management of asthma: a cross-sectional assessment of allergists' patients and generalists' patients in a large HMO. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1201 8.
  • 24
    Zeiger RS, Heller S, Mellon MH, Wald J, Falkoff R, Schatz M. Facilitated referral to asthma specialist reduces relapses in asthma emergency room visits. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991;87:1160 8.
  • 25
    Ayanian JZ, Hauptman PJ, Guadagnoli E, Antman EM, Pashos CL, McNeil BJ. Knowledge and practices of generalist and specialist physicians regarding drug therapy for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1136 42.
  • 26
    Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Streptochinasi nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI). Effectiveness of intravenous thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1986;1:397 402.
  • 27
    Collaborative GroupISIS-2(Second International Study of Infarct Survival) . Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. Lancet. 1988;2:349 60.
  • 28
    Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration. Secondary prevention of vascular disease by prolonged antiplatelet treatment. BMJ. 1988;296: 320 31.
  • 29
    The Norwegian Multicenter Study Group. Timolol-induced reduction in mortality and reinfarction in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1981;304:801 7.
  • 30
    β-Blocker Heart Attack Trial Research Group. A randomized trial of propranolol in patients with acute myocardial infarction. I: mortality results. JAMA. 1982;247:1707 14.
  • 31
    Yusuf S, Peto R, Lewis J, Collins R, Sleight P. Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1985;27:335 71.
  • 32
    The Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myocardial Infarction. Verapamil in acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 1984;5: 516 28.
  • 33
    The Israeli Sprint Study Group. Secondary Prevention Reinfarction Israeli Nifedipine Trial (SPRINT): a randomized intervention trial of nifedipine in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 1988;9:354 64.
  • 34
    The Multicenter Diltiazem Postinfarction Trial Research Group. The effect of diltiazem on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:385 92.
  • 35
    Held PH, Yusuf S, Furberg CD. Calcium channel blockers in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina: an overview. BMJ. 1989;299:1187 92.
  • 36
    MacMahon S, Collins R, Peto R, Koster RW, Yusuf S. Effects of prophylactic lidocaine in suspected acute myocardial infarction: an overview of results from the randomized, controlled trials. JAMA. 1988;260:1910 6.
  • 37
    Hine LK, Laird N, Hewitt P, Chalmers TC. Meta-analytic evidence against prophylactic use of lidocaine in acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:2694 8.
  • 38
    Hlatky MA, Cotugno H, O'connor C, Mark DB, Pryor DB, Califf RM. Adoption of thrombolytic therapy in the management of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1988;61:510 4.
  • 39
    Hlatky MA, Cotugno HE, Mark DB, O'connor C, Califf RM, Pryor DB. Trends in physician management of uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction, 1970 to 1987. Am J Cardiol. 1988;61:515 8.
  • 40
    Jollis JG, DeLong ER, Peterson ED, et al. Outcome of acute myocardial infarction according to the specialty of the admitting physician. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1880 7.
  • 41
    Ayanian JZ, Guadagnoli E, McNeil BJ, Cleary PD. Treatment and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction among patients of cardiologists and generalist physicians. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157: 2570 6.
  • 42
    Nash IS, Nash DB, Fuster V. Do cardiologists do it better? J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29:475 8.
  • 43
    Friedmann PD, Brett AS, Mayo-Smith MF. Differences in generalists' and cardiologists' perceptions of cardiovascular risk and the outcomes of preventive therapy in cardiovascular disease. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:414 21.
  • 44
    Lipid Research Clinics Program. The lipid research clinics coronary primary prevention trial results. I: reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1984;251:351 64.
  • 45
    Frick MH, Elo O, Haapa K, et al. Helsinki Heart Study: primary-prevention trial with gemfibrizol in middle-aged men with dyslipidemia. Safety of treatment, changes in risk factors, and incidence of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1237 45.
  • 46
    SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the systolic hypertension in the elderly program (SHEP). JAMA. 1991;265:3255 64.
  • 47
    Takaro T, Peduzzi P, Detre KM, et al. Survival in subgroups of patients with left main coronary artery disease. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study of Surgery for Coronary Artery Occlusive Disease. Circulation. 1982;66:14 22.
  • 48
    Chaitman BR, Fisher LD, Bourassa MG, et al. Effect of coronary bypass surgery on survival patterns in subsets of patients with left main coronary artery disease: report of the Collaborative Study in Coronary Artery Surgery (CASS). Am J Cardiol. 1981;48: 765 77.
  • 49
    Chin MH, Friedmann PD, Cassel CK, Lang RM. Differences in generalist and specialist physicians' knowledge and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for congestive heart failure. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12:523 30.
  • 50
    The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:293 302.
  • 51
    The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. N Engl J Med. 1992;327: 685 91.
  • 52
    Chin MH, Wang JC, Zhang JX, Lang RM. Utilization and dosing of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for heart failure: effect of physician specialty and patient characteristics. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12:563 6.
  • 53
    Stafford RS, Blumenthal D, Pasternak RC. Variations in cholesterol management practices of US physicians. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29:139 46.
  • 54
    Young MJ, Fried LS, Eisenberg J, Hershey J, Williams S. Do cardiologists have higher thresholds for recommending coronary arteriography than family physicians? Health Serv Res. 1987;22:623 35.
  • 55
    Glassman PA, Kravitz RL, Petersen LP, Rolph JE. Differences in clinical decision making between internists and cardiologists. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:506 12.
  • 56
    Greenwald HP, Peterson ML, Garrison LP, et al. Interspecialty variation in office-based care. Med Care. 1984;22:14 29.
  • 57
    Schreiber TL, Elkhatib A, Grines CL, O'neill WW. Cardiologist versus internist management of patients with unstable angina: treatment patterns and outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26:577 82.
  • 58
    Greenfield S, Rogers W, Mangotich M, Carney MF, Tarlov AR. Outcomes of patients with hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus treated by different systems and specialties. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA. 1995;274: 1436 44.
  • 59
    Clark RA & Rietschel RL. The cost of initiating appropriate therapy for skin disease: a comparison of dermatologists and family physicians. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;9:787 96.
  • 60
    Fendrick AM, Hirth RA, Chernew ME. Differences between generalist and specialist physicians regarding Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:1544 8.
  • 61
    Mahajan RJ, Barthel JS, Marshall JB. Appropriateness of referrals for open-access endoscopy: how do physicians in different medical specialties do? Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:2065 9.
  • 62
    American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Appropriate Use of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Manchester, Mass: American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy; 1992.
  • 63
    Morin CA, Roberts CL, Mshar PA, Addiss DG, Hadler JL. What do physicians know about cryptosporidiosis? A survey of Connecticut physicians. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1017 22.
  • 64
    Mitchell JB, Ballard DJ, Whisnant JP, Ammering CJ, Samsa GP, Matchar DB. What role do neurologists play in determining the costs and outcomes of stroke patients? Stroke. 1996;27:1937 43.
  • 65
    McFall SL, Warnecke RB, Kaluzny AD, Aitken M, Ford L. Physician and practice characteristics associated with judgements about breast cancer treatment. Med Care. 1993;32:106 17.
  • 66
    Wachtel TJ & Mor V. Physicians' use of health resources for terminal cancer patients: clinical setting versus physician specialty. South Med J. 1987;80:1120 4.
  • 67
    Roetzheim RG, Van Durme DJ, Brownlee HJ, Herold AH, Pamies RJ, Woodard L. Compliance with screening mammography: survey of primary care physicians. J Fla Med Assoc. 1991;78:426 9.
  • 68
    Lurie N, Slater J, McGovern P, Ekstrum J, Quam L, Margolis K. Preventive care for women. Does the sex of the physician matter? N Engl J Med. 1993;329:478 82.
  • 69
    Taplin SH, Taylor V, Montano D, Chinn R, Urban N. Specialty differences and the ordering of screening mammography by primary care physicians. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1994;7:375 86.
  • 70
    Grisso JA, Baum CR, Turner BJ. What do physicians in practice do to prevent osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res. 1990;5:213 9.
  • 71
    Dietrich AJ & Goldberg H. Preventive content of adult primary care: do generalists and specialists differ? Am J Public Health. 1984; 74:223 7.
  • 72
    Minister of Supply and Services Canada. Periodic Health Examination Report of a Task Force to the Conference of Deputy Ministers of Health, Ottawa, Canada, 1980.
  • 73
    Meredith LS, Wells KB, Camp P. Clinical specialty and treatment style for depressed outpatients with and without medical comorbidities. Arch Fam Med. 1994;3:1065 72.
  • 74
    Strauss MJ, Conrad D, LoGerfo JP, Hudson LD, Bergner M. Cost and outcome of care for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Med Care. 1986;24:915 24.
  • 75
    Ware JE, Sherbourne CA, Davies AR. A Short-Form General Health Survey. Santa Monica, Calif: RAND; 1988. Publication P-7444.
  • 76
    Bellamy N, Gilbert JF, Brooks PM, Emmerson BT, Campbell J. A survey of current prescribing practices of antiinflammatory and urate lowering drugs in gouty arthritis in the province of Ontario. J Rheumatol. 1988;15:1841 7.
  • 77
    Medellin MV, Erickson AR, Enzenauer RJ. Variability of treatment for gouty arthritis between rheumatologists and primary care physicians. JCR J Clin Rheumatol. 1997;3:24 7.
  • 78
    Mazzuca SA, Brandt KD, Katz BP, Li W, Stewart KD. Therapeutic strategies distinguish community based primary care physicians from rheumatologists in the management of osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol. 1993;20:80 6.
  • 79
    Mazzuca SA, Brandt KD, Katz BP, et al. Comparison of general internists, family physicians, and rheumatologists managing patients with symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Care Res. 1997;10:289 99.
  • 80
    Walker DJ, Young I, Hassey GA, Smith AMM, Goring M, Platt PN. The acute hot joint in medical practice. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1995;29:101 4.
  • 81
    Carey TS, Garrett J, Jackman A, et al. The outcomes and costs of care for acute low back pain among patients seen by primary care practitioners, chiropractors and orthopedic surgeons. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:913 7.
  • 82
    Shekelle PG, Markovich M, Louie R. Comparing the costs between provider types of episodes of back pain care. Spine. 1995;20:221 7.
  • 83
    Gunnar RM, Passamani ER, Bourdillon PD, et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on assessment of diagnostic and therapeutic cardiovascular procedures. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990; 82:664 707.
  • 84
    Kaste M, Palomäki H, Sarna S. Where and how should elderly stroke patients be treated? Stroke. 1995;26:249 53.
  • 85
    Indredavik B, Bakke F, Solberg R, Rokseth R, Haaheim LL, Holme I. Benefit of a stroke unit: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke. 1991;22:1026 31.
  • 86
    Adams AS, Soumerai SB, Lomas J, Ross-Degnan D. The role of social desirability in clinician self-reports of guideline adherence. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12(suppl 1):64. Abstract.
  • 87
    Solomon DH, Bates DW, Panush RS, Katz JN. Costs, outcomes and patient satisfaction by provider type for patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal conditions: a critical review of the literature and proposed methodologic standards. Ann Intern Med. 1997;127:52 60.
  • 88
    Nash DB & Nash IS. Building the best team. Ann Intern Med. 1997;127:72 4.
  • 89
    Matz R. Letters to the editor. JAMA. 1996;275:1083 4.
  • 90
    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:977 86.
  • 91
    Wennberg J & Gittelsohn A. Variations in medical care among small areas. Sci Am. 1982;246:120 34.
  • 92
    Hiss RG & Greenfield S. Forum three: changes in the U.S. health care system that would facilitate improved care for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124(1 pt 2):180 3.