• 1
    Cypress BW. Drug Utilization in Office Visits to Primary Care Physicians: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1980. Department of Health and Human Services publication (PHS) 82–1250. Washington, DC: Public Health Service; 1982.
  • 2
    Bates DW, Cullen D, Laird N, et al. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events: implications for prevention. JAMA. 1995;274:29 34.
  • 3
    Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, Evans RS, Lloyd JF, Burke JP. Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. Excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA. 1997;277:301 6.
  • 4
    Leape LL, Brennan TA, Laird NM, et al. The nature of adverse events in hospitalized patients: results from the Harvard Medical Practice Study II. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:377 84.
  • 5
    Bates DW, Spell N, Cullen DJ, et al. The costs of adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. JAMA. 1997;227:307 11.
  • 6
    Leape LL, Bates DW, Cullen DJ, et al. Systems analysis of adverse drug events. JAMA. 1995;274:35 43.
  • 7
    Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA. 1998;279:1200 5.
  • 8
    Bates DW. Drugs and adverse drug reactions. How worried should we be? JAMA. 1998;279(15):1216 7.
  • 9
    Phillips DP, Christenfeld N, Glynn LM. Increase in US medication-error deaths between 1983 and 1993. Lancet. 1998;351:643 4.
  • 10
    Hutchinson TA, Flegel KM, Kramer MS, Leduc DG, Kong HPK. Frequency, severity and risk factors for adverse drug reactions in adult outpatients: a prospective study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1986;39:533 42.
  • 11
    Hanlon JT, Schmader KE, Koronkowski MJ, et al. Adverse drug events in high risk older outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997; 45:945 8.
  • 12
    O'neil AC, Petersen LA, Cook EF, Bates DW, Lee TH, Brennan TA. Physician reporting compared with medical-record review to identify adverse medical events. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:370 6.
  • 13
    Jones JK. Assessing potential risk of drugs: the elusive target. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117:691 2. Editorial.
  • 14
    Tarlov AR, Ware Je Jr, Greenfield S, Nelson EC, Perrin E, Zubkoff M. The Medical Outcomes Study: an application of methods for monitoring the results of medical care. JAMA. 1989;262:925 30.
  • 15
    Chrischilles EA, Segar ET, Wallace RB. Self-reported adverse drug reactions and related resource use: a study of community-dwelling persons 65 years of age and older. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117:634 40.
  • 16
    Physicians' Desk Reference. 52nd ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Data Production Co; 1998.
  • 17
    Naranjo CA, Busto U, Sellers EM, et al. A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981;30:239 45.
  • 18
    Jha AK, Kuperman GJ, Teich JM, et al. Identifying adverse drug events: development of a computer-based monitor and comparison to chart review and stimulated voluntary report. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1998;5(3):305 14.
  • 19
    Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, Evans RS, Burke JP. Computerized surveillance of adverse drug events in hospital patients. JAMA. 1991;266:2847 51.
  • 20
    Bates DW, O'neil AC, Boyle D, et al. Potential identifiability and preventability of adverse events using information systems. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1994;1:404 11.
  • 21
    Honigman B, Bates DW, Light P. Computerized data mining for adverse drug events in an outpatient setting [abstract]. Proc AMIA Symp. 1998;1018.
  • 22
    Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Sande MA. Antibiotic prescribing for adults with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis by ambulatory care physicians. JAMA. 1997;278(11): 901 4.
  • 23
    Fuchsberg A. Medical malpractice — catch 29 or catch 22. Trial Lawyers Q. 1978;12:9 15.