SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Heffron R. Pneumonia with special reference to pneumococcus lobar pneumonia. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press; 1979;302 8.
  • 2
    Norby SR & Pope KA. Pneumococcal pneumonia. J Infect. 1979;1: 109 20.
  • 3
    Mundy LM, Auwaerter PG, Oldach D, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia: impact of immune status. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:1309 15.
  • 4
    Fang G-D, Fine M, Orloff J, Arisumi D, et al. New and emerging etiologies for community-acquired pneumonia with implications for therapy. A prospective multicentre study of 359 cases. Medicine. 1990;69:307 16.
  • 5
    Ortqvist A, Kalin M, Julander J, Mufson MA. Deaths in bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. A comparison of two populations—Huntington, WVa and Stockholm, Sweden. Chest. 1993;103:710 6.
  • 6
    Austrian R & Gold J. Pneumococcal bacteremia with special reference to bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. Arch Intern Med. 1964;60:759 66.
  • 7
    Kramer MR, Rudensky B, Hadas-Halperin IN, et al. Pneumococcal bacteremia: no change in mortality over 30 years—analysis of 104 cases and review of the literature. Isr J Med Sci. 1987;23:174 80.
  • 8
    Hook Ew III, Horton CA, Schaberg DR. Failure of intensive care unit support to influence mortality from pneumococcal pneumonia. JAMA. 1983;249:1055 7.
  • 9
    Hofmann J, Cetron MS, Farley MM, et al. The prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Atlanta. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:481 6.
  • 10
    Pallares R, Linares J, Vadillo M, et al. Resistance to penicillin and cephalosporins and mortality from severe pneumococcal pneumonia in Barcelona, Spain. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:474 80.
  • 11
    Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:243 50.
  • 12
    Fine MJ, Stone RA, Singer DE, et al. Processes and outcomes of care for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Results from the pneumonia patient outcomes research team. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159: 970 80.
  • 13
    Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries, and causes of death. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1977.
  • 14
    Bartlett G & Mundy LM. Community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1618 24.
  • 15
    Marston BJ, Plouffe JF, File Tm Jr, et al. Incidence of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Results of a population based active surveillance study in Ohio. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1709 18.
  • 16
    Burman LA, Trollfors B, Andersson B, et al. Diagnosis of pneumonia by cultures, bacterial and viral antigen detection tests, and serology with special influence to antibodies against pneumococcal antigens. J Infect Dis. 1991;163:1087 93.
  • 17
    Kauppinen MT, Herva E, Kujala P, et al. The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia among hospitalized patients during a Chlamydia pneumoniae epidemic in Finland. J Infect Dis. 1995; 172:1330 5.
  • 18
    Fay HM, Wentworth B, Kenny GE, Kloeck JM, Grayston JT. Pneumococcal isolation from patients with pneumonia and control subjects in a prepaid medical care group. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1975;111:595 603.
  • 19
    Bates JH, Campbell GD, Barren AC, et al. Microbiology etiology of acute pneumonia in hospitalized patients. Chest. 1992;101: 1005 112.
  • 20
    Gilbert K, Gleason PP, Singer DE, et al. Variation in antimicrobial use and cost in more than 2000 patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Med. 1998;104:17 27.DOI: 10.1016/s0002-9343(97)00274-x
  • 21
    Goldstein EJC. CID Hot Page. Clinic Infect Dis. 1997;24.
  • 22
    Butler JC, Hofmann J, Cetron MS, et al. The continuing emergence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States. An update from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's pneumococcal sentinel surveillance system. J Infect Dis. 1996;174:986 93.
  • 23
    British Thoracic Society Research Committee. The aetiology management and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia in the intensive care unit. Respir Med. 1992;86:7 13.
  • 24
    Rello J, Quintana E, Ausina V, Net A, Prats G. A three-year study of severe community-acquired pneumonia with emphasis on outcome. Chest. 1993;103:232 5.
  • 25
    Finkelstein MS, Petkun WM, Freedman ML, Antopol SC. Pneumococcal bacteremia in adults. Age-dependent differences in presentation and outcome. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1983;31:19 27.
  • 26
    Ortqvist A, Grepe A, Julander IN, Kalin M. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in Sweden: Clinical course and outcome and comparison with non-bacteremic pneumococcal and mycoplasmal pneumonias. Scand J Infect Dis. 1988;20:163 71.
  • 27
    Tilghman RC & Finland M. Clinical significance of bacteremia in pneumococcic pneumonia. Arch Intern Med. 1937;59:602 19.
  • 28
    Perlino CA & Rimland D. Alcoholism, leukopenia and pneumococcal sepsis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985;132:757 60.
  • 29
    Kludt P, Lett SM, De Maria, et al. Outbreaks of pneumococcal pneumonia among unvaccinated residents in chronic care facilities—Massachusetts, October 1995, Oklahoma, February 1996 and Maryland, May-June 1996. MMWR. 1997;46:60.
  • 30
    Metlay JP, Fine MJ, Schulz R, et al. Measuring symptomatic and functional recovery in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12:423 30.
  • 31
    Kalin M, Ortqvist A, Almela M, et al. Prospective study of prognostic factors incommunity-acquired bacteremic pneumococcal disease in five countries. Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Francisco, Calif. 1999;675. Abstract 1068.