• decision aid;
  • atrial fibrillation;
  • warfarin;
  • aspirin

With patients demanding a greater role in the clinical decision-making process, many researchers are developing and disseminating decision aids for various medical conditions. In this article, we outline the essential elements in the development and evaluation of a decision aid to help patients with atrial fibrillation choose, in consultation with their physicians, appropriate antithrombotic therapy (warfarin, aspirin, or no therapy) to prevent stroke. We also outline possible future directions regarding the implementation and evaluation of this decision aid. This information should enable clinicians to better understand the role that decision aids may have in their interactions with patients.