SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. National Inpatient Statistics, 1996. Vol. 99-0034; 1999.
  • 2
    Lave JR, Lin CC, Fine MJ, et al. The cost of treating patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;20: 18997.
  • 3
    Burns LR & Wholey DR. The effects of patient, hospital, and physician characteristics on length of stay and mortality. Med Care. 1991;29: 25171.
  • 4
    Cleary PD, Greenfield S, Mulley AG, et al. Variations in length of stay and outcomes for six medical and surgical conditions in Massachusetts and California. JAMA. 1991;266: 739.
  • 5
    McCormick D, Fine MJ, Coley CM, et al. Variation in length of hospital stay in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: are shorter stays associated with worse medical outcomes? Am J Med. 1999;107: 512.
  • 6
    Fine MJ, Singer DE, Phelps AL, et al. Differences in length of hospital stay in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective four-hospital study. Med Care. 1993;31: 37180.
  • 7
    Halm EA, Fine MJ, Marrie TJ, et al. Time to clinical stability in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: implications for practice guidelines. JAMA. 1998;279: 14527.
  • 8
    Fine MJ, Medsger AR, Stone RA, et al. The hospital discharge decision for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Results from the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157: 4756.
  • 9
    Bartlett JG, Breiman RF, Mandell LA, File TM Jr. Community-acquired pneumonia in adults: guidelines for management. The Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26: 81138.
  • 10
    Niederman MS, Bass JB Jr, Campbell GD, et al. Guidelines for the initial management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis, assessment of severity, and initial antimicrobial therapy. American Thoracic Society. Medical Section of the American Lung Association. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;148: 141826.
  • 11
    Marrie TJ. Community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18: 50113.
  • 12
    Jackson DN. Jackson Personality Inventory Manual. Goshen, NY: Research Psychologists Press; 1975.
  • 13
    Goldberg LR. The development of markers for the big five factor structure. Psychol Assess. 1992;4: 2642.
  • 14
    Tunis SR, Hayward RS, Wilson MC, et al. Internists' attitudes about clinical practice guidelines. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120: 95663.
  • 15
    Zeger SL & Lian KY. Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes. Biometrics. 1986;42: 12130.
  • 16
    Fine MJ, Smith MA, Carson CA, et al. Prognosis and outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. A meta-analysis. JAMA. 1996;275: 13441.
  • 17
    Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997;336: 24350.
  • 18
    Jay SJ, Johnson WGJ, Pierce AK. The radiographic resolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1975;293: 798801.
  • 19
    MacFarlane JT, Miller AC, Smith WH, et al. Comparative radiographic features of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease, pneumococcal pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneuemoniae and psittacosis. Thorax. 1984;36: 36972.
  • 20
    Weingarten SR, Riedinger MS, Hobson P, et al. Evaluation of a pneumonia practice guideline in an interventional trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153: 11105.
  • 21
    Rhew DC, Hackner D, Henderson L, et al. The clinical benefit of in-hospital observation in ‘low-risk’ pneumonia patients after conversion from parenteral to oral antimicrobial therapy. Chest. 1998;113: 1426.
  • 22
    Dunn AS, Peterson KL, Schechter CB, et al. The utility of an in-hospital observation period after discontinuing intravenous antibiotics. Am J Med. 1999;106: 610.
  • 23
    Ramirez JA, Srinath L, Ahkee S, et al. Early switch from intravenous to oral cephalosporins in the treatment of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155: 12736.
  • 24
    Siegel RE, Halpern NA, Almenoff PL, et al. A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia. The optimal duration of therapy. Chest. 1996;110: 96571.
  • 25
    Ramirez JA, Vargas S, Ritter GW, et al. Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics and early hospital discharge. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159: 244954.
  • 26
    Switzer GE, Halm EA, Goldman J, et al. Physician familiarity with and use of national and local pneumonia practice guidelines. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14(suppl):124.
  • 27
    Halm EA, Causino N, Blumenthal D. Is gatekeeping better than traditional care? A survey of physicians' attitudes. JAMA. 1997;278: 167781.