• 1
    United States Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition in Two Volumes). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.
  • 2
    Escarce J, Epstein K, Colby D, Schwartz S. Racial differences in the elderly's use of medical procedures and diagnostic tests. Am J Public Health. 1993;83: 94854.
  • 3
    Gornick ME, Eggers PW, Reilly TW, et al. Effects of race and income on mortality and use of services among Medicare beneficiaries. N Engl J Med. 1996;335: 7919.DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199609123351106
  • 4
    Ayanian JZ, Udvarhelyi IS, Gatsonis CA, Pashos CL, Epstein AM. Racial differences in the use of revascularization procedures after coronary angiography. JAMA. 1993;269: 26426.DOI: 10.1001/jama.269.20.2642
  • 5
    Ayanian J, Weissman J, Chasan-Taber S, Epstein A. Quality of care by race and gender for congestive heart failure and pneumonia. Med Care. 1999;37: 12609.DOI: 10.1097/00005650-199912000-00009
  • 6
    Kahn KL, Pearson Ml, Harrison RR, et al. Health care for black and poor hospitalized medicare patients. JAMA. 1994;271: 116974.DOI: 10.1001/jama.271.15.1169
  • 7
    Peterson ED, Wright SM, Daley J, Thibault GE. Racial variation in cardiac procedure use and survival following acute myocardial infarction in the Department of Veterans Affairs. JAMA. 1994;271: 117580.DOI: 10.1001/jama.271.15.1175
  • 8
    Asch SM, Sloss EM, Hogan C, Brook RH, Kravitz RL. Measuring underuse of necessary care among elderly medicare beneficiaries using inpatient and outpatient claims. JAMA. 2000;284: 232533.DOI: 10.1001/jama.284.18.2325
  • 9
    Hsia J, Kemper E, Kiefe C, et al. The importance of health insurance as a determinant of cancer screening: evidence from the Women's Health Initiative. Prev Med. 2000;31: 26170.DOI: 10.1006/pmed.2000.0697
  • 10
    Janes G, Blackman DK, Bolen JC, et al. Surveillance for use of preventive health-care services by older adults, 1995–1997. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. CDC Surveill Summ. 1999;48: 5188.
  • 11
    CDC. Use of mammography services by women aged > or = 65 years enrolled in Medicare–United States, 1991–1993. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995;44: 77781.
  • 12
    Collins KS, Hall A, Neuhaus C. U.S. Minority Health: A Chartbook. New York: The Commonwealth Fund; 1999: 161.
  • 13
    Carrasquillo O, Lantigua RA, Shea S. Preventive services among Medicare beneficiaries with supplemental coverage versus HMO enrollees, Medicaid recipients, and elders with no additional coverage. Med Care. 2001;39: 61626.DOI: 10.1097/00005650-200106000-00009
  • 14
    Hartwig M, Hall G, Hathaway D, Gaber A. Effect of organ donor race on health team procurement efforts. Arch Surg. 1993;128: 13315.
  • 15
    Ayanian J, Cleary P, Weissman J, Epstein A. The effect of patients' preferences on racial differences in access to renal transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1999;341: 16619.DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199911253412206
  • 16
    Schulman K, Berlin J, Harless W, et al. The effect of race and sex on physicians' recommendations for cardiac catheterization. N Engl J Med. 1999;340: 61826.DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199902253400806
  • 17
    Burns RB, McCarthy EP, Freund KM, et al. Black women receive less mammography even with similar use of primary care. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125: 17382.
  • 18
    Shi L. Experience of primary care by racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Med Care. 1999;37: 106877.DOI: 10.1097/00005650-199910000-00010
  • 19
    O'Malley AS, Mandelblatt J, Gold K, Cagney KA, Kerner J. Continuity of care and the use of breast and cervical cancer screening services in a multiethnic community. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157: 146270.DOI: 10.1001/archinte.157.13.1462
  • 20
    O'Connor PJ, Desai J, Rush WA, Cherney LM, Solberg LI, Bishop DB. Is having a regular provider of diabetes care related to intensity of care and glycemic control? J Fam Pract. 1998;47: 2907.
  • 21
    Hueston WJ, Hubbard ET. Preventive services for rural and urban African American adults. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9: 2636.DOI: 10.1001/archfami.9.3.263
  • 22
    Cohen J. MEPS Methodology Report No. 1. Rockville, Md: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1997.
  • 23
    Cohen J. MEPS Methodology Report No. 2. Rockville, Md: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1997.
  • 24
    United States Preventive Services Task Force. The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. Alexandria, Va: International Medical Publishing, Inc.; 1996.
  • 25
    Zar J. Biostatistical Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.; 1984.
  • 26
    Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller KE, Nizam A. Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods. Pacific Grove, Calif: Duxbury Press; 1998: 798.
  • 27
    Breen N, Kessler L. Changes in the use of screening mammography: evidence from the 1987 and 1990 National Health Interview Surveys. Am J Public Health. 1994;84: 627.
  • 28
    Kaplan RM, Navarro AM, Castro FG, et al. Increased use of mammography among Hispanic women: baseline results from the NCI Cooperative Group on Cancer Prevention Hispanic Communities. Am J Prev Med. 1996;12: 46771.
  • 29
    Perez-Stable EJ, Sabogal F, Otero-Sabogal R. Use of cancer-screening tests in the San Francisco Bay area: comparison of Latinos and Anglos. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1995;18: 14753.
  • 30
    United States Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service. Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 1991.
  • 31
    CDC. Results from the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program. October 31, 1991-September 30, 1993. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994;43: 5304.
  • 32
    Dignam JJ. Differences in breast cancer prognosis among African-American and Caucasian women. CA Cancer J Clin. 2000;50: 5064.
  • 33
    Joslyn SA, West MM. Racial differences in breast carcinoma survival. Cancer. 2000;88: 11423.DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0142(20000101)88:1<114::aid-cncr16>;2-a
  • 34
    CDC. Hypertension among Mexican Americans–United States, 1982–1984 and 1988- 1991. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995;44: 6359.
  • 35
    Crespo CJ, Loria CM, Burt VL. Hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Public Health Rep. 1996;111: 710.
  • 36
    Stafford RS, Blumenthal D, Pasternak RC. Variations in cholesterol management practices of U.S. physicians. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29: 13946.DOI: 10.1016/S0735-1097(96)00441-X
  • 37
    Smith NL, Croft JB, Heath GW, Cokkinides V. Changes in cardiovascular disease knowledge and behavior in a low-education population of African-American and white adults. Ethn Dis. 1996;6: 24454.
  • 38
    Hueston WJ, Spencer E, Kuehn R. Differences in the frequency of cholesterol screening in patients with Medicaid compared with private insurance. Arch Fam Med. 1995;4: 3314.DOI: 10.1001/archfami.4.4.331
  • 39
    Majeroni BA, Smallen G, Crawford ME. Body mass and weight as indicators for cholesterol screening. J Fam Pract. 1992;35: 5379.
  • 40
    Bindman AB, Grumbach K, Osmond D, Vranizan K, Stewart AL. Primary care and receipt of preventive services. J Gen Intern Med. 1996;11: 26976.
  • 41
    Moy E, Bartman B, Weir M. Access to hypertensive care: effects of income, insurance and source of care. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155: 1497502.DOI: 10.1001/archinte.155.14.1497
  • 42
    Lambrew JM, Defriese GH, Carey TS, Ricketts TC, Biddle AK. The effects of having a regular doctor on access to primary care. Med Care. 1996;34: 13851.DOI: 10.1097/00005650-199602000-00006
  • 43
    Mainous AG III, Hueston WJ, Love MM, Griffith CH III. Access to care for the uninsured: is access to a physician enough? Am J Public Health. 1999;89: 9102.
  • 44
    Flocke SA, Stange KC, Zyzanski SJ. The association of attributes of primary care with the delivery of clinical preventive services. Med Care. 1998;36: AS2130.DOI: 10.1097/00005650-199808001-00004
  • 45
    King ES, Rimer BK, Trock B, Balshem A, Engstrom P. How valid are mammography self-reports? Am J Public Health. 1990;80: 13868.
  • 46
    May DS, Trontell AE. Mammography use by elderly women: a methodological comparison of two national data sources. Ann Epidemiol. 1998;8: 43944.DOI: 10.1016/S1047-2797(98)00010-6
  • 47
    Bloom SA, Harris JR, Thompson BL, Ahmed F, Thompson J. Tracking clinical preventive service use: a comparison of the health plan employer data and information set with the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Med Care. 2000;38: 18794.
  • 48
    Stange KC, Zyzanski SJ, Smith TF, et al. How valid are medical records and patient questionnaires for physician profiling and health services research? A comparison with direct observation of patient visits. Med Care. 1998;36: 85167.DOI: 10.1097/00005650-199806000-00009