• 1
    Markowitz M, Saag M, Powderly WG, et al. A preliminary study of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, to treat HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1995;333: 15349.
  • 2
    Danner SA, Carr A, Leonard JM, et al. A short-term study of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease. European-Australian Collaborative Ritonavir Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;333: 152833.
  • 3
    Collier AC, Coombs RW, Schoenfeld DA, et al. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with saquinavir, zidovudine and zalcitabine. N Engl J Med. 1996;334: 10117.
  • 4
    Gulick RM, Mellors JW, Havlir D, et al. Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 1997;337: 7349.
  • 5
    Mathez D, Truchis P, Gorin I, et al. Ritonavir, AZT, DDC, as a triple combination in AIDS patients. Presented at the Third Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infection, Washington, DC,: February 1, 1996.
  • 6
    Gulick RM, Mellors JW, Havlir D, et al. Simultaneous vs.sequential initiation of therapy with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine for HIV-1 infection: 100-week follow-up. JAMA. 1998;280: 3541.
  • 7
    Paterson L, Swindells S, Mohr J, et al. Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133: 2130.
  • 8
    Bangsberg DR, Hecht FM, Charlebois ED, et al. Adherence to protease inhibitors, HIV-1 viral load, and development of drug resistance in an indigent population. AIDS. 2000;14: 35766.
  • 9
    Bangsberg DR, Perry S, Charlebois E, Clark R, Robertson M, Moss AR. Adherence to HAART predicts progression to AIDS. AIDS. 2001;15: 11813.
  • 10
    Montessori V, Heath B, Yip R, et al. Predictors of adherence with triple combination antiretroviral therapy. Presented at the Seventh Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infection, January 30–February 2,2000.
  • 11
    Carpenter CJ, Fischl MA, Hammer SM, et al. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in 1998: updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society—USA Panel. JAMA. 1998;280: 7886.
  • 12
    Reichman LB. Compliance with zidovudine therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113: 3323.
  • 13
    Chow R, Chin T, Fong IW, Bendayan R. Medication use patterns in HIV-positive patients. Can J Hosp Pharm. 1993;46: 1715.
  • 14
    Nobel H, Carmona A, Grau S, Pedro-Botet J, Diez A. Adherence and effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158: 1953.
  • 15
    Condra JH, Schleif WA, Blahy OM, et al. In vivo emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to multiple protease inhibitors. Nature. 1995;374: 56971.
  • 16
    El-Farrash MA, Kuroda MJ, Kitazaki T, et al. Generation and characterization of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutant resistant to an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. J Virol. 1994;68: 2339.
  • 17
    Ho DD, Toyoshima T, Mo H, et al. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with increased resistance to a C2-symmetric protease inhibitor. J Virol. 1994;68: 201620.
  • 18
    Jacobsen H, Yasargil K, Winslow DL, et al. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants with decreased sensitivity to proteinase inhibitor Ro 31–8959. Virology. 1995;206: 52734.
  • 19
    Kaplan AH, Michael SF, Wehbie RS, et al. Selection of multiple HIV-1 variants with decreased sensitivity to an inhibitor of the viral protease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994;91: 5597601.
  • 20
    Lin Y, Lin X, Hong L, et al. Effect of point mutations on the kinetics and the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease: relationship to drug resistance. Biochemistry. 1995;34: 114352.
  • 21
    Liu HH, Golin CG, Miller L, et al. A comparison study of multiple measures of adherence to HIV protease inhibitors. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134: 96877.
  • 22
    Eldred LJ, Wu AW, Chaisson RE, Moore RD. Adherence to antiretroviral and pneumocystis prophylaxis in HIV disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1998;18: 11725.
  • 23
    Kastrissios H, Suarez JR, Hammer S, Katzenstein D, Blaschke TF. The extent of non-adherence in a large AIDS clinical trial using plasma dideoxynucleoside concentrations as a marker. AIDS. 1998;12: 230511.
  • 24
    Lucas GM, Chaisson RE, Moore RD. Highly active antiretroviral therapy in a large urban clinic: risk factors for virologic failure and adverse drug reactions. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131: 817.
  • 25
    Deeks SG, Hecht FM, Swanson M, et al. HIV RNA and CD4 cell count response to protease inhibitor therapy in an urban AIDS clinic: response to both initial and salvage therapy. AIDS. 1999;13: F3543.
  • 26
    Haynes RB, Taylor DW, Sackett DL. Compliance in Health Care. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1979.
  • 27
    Cramer J, Mattson RH, Prevey ML, Scheer RD, Ouellette V. How often is medication taken as prescribed? A novel assessment technique. JAMA. 1989;261: 32727.
  • 28
    Golin CE, DiMatteo MR, Gelberg L. The role of patient participation in the doctor visit. Implications for adherence to diabetes care. Diabetes Care. 1996;19: 115364.
  • 29
    Glasgow RE, Strycker LA, Toobert DJ, Eakin E. A social-ecologic approach to assessing support for disease self-management: the Chronic Illness Resources Survey. J Behav Med. 2000;23: 55983.
  • 30
    Golin CE, DiMatteo MR, Meisler AW. Adherence in AIDS clinical trials: a framework for clinical research and clinical care. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997;50: 38591.
  • 31
    Samet JH, Libman H, Steger KA, et al. Compliance with zidovudine therapy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, type 1: a cross-sectional study in a municipal hospital clinic. Am J Med. 1992;92: 495502.
  • 32
    Samuels JE, Hendrix J, Hilton M, Marantz PR, Sloan V, Small CB. Zidovudine therapy in an inner city population. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3: 87783.
  • 33
    Broers B, Morabia A, Hirschel B. A cohort study of drug users' compliance with zidovudine treatment. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154: 11217.
  • 34
    Muma RD, Ross MW, Parcel GS, Pollard RB. Zidovudine adherence among individuals with HIV infection. AIDS Care. 1995;7: 43947.
  • 35
    Weidle PJ, Ganera CE, Irwin KL, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral medications in an inner-city population. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999;22: 498502.
  • 36
    Holzemer W, Henry S, Portillo CJ, Miramontes H. The Client Adherence Profiling-Intervention Tailoring (CAP-IT) intervention for enhancing adherence to HIV/AIDS medications: a pilot study. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2000;11: 3644.
  • 37
    Murphy D, Roberts K, Marelich W, Hoffman D. Barriers to antiretroviral adherence among HIV-Infected adults. AIDS Patient Care. 2000;14: 4758.
  • 38
    Chesney M, Ickovics J, Chambers D, et al. Self-reported adherence to antiretroviral medications among participants in HIV clinical trials: the AACTG adherence instruments. AIDS Care. 2000;12: 25566.
  • 39
    Murri R, Ammassari A, Gallicano K, et al. Patient-reported nonadherence to HAART is related to protease inhibitor levels. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;24: 1238.
  • 40
    Catz S, Kelly J, Bogart L, Benotsch E, McAuliffe T. Patterns, correlates, and barriers to medication adherence among persons prescribed new treatments for HIV disease. Health Psychol. 2000;19: 12433.
  • 41
    Holzemer WL, Corless IB, Nokes KM, et al. Predictors of self-reported adherence in persons living with HIV disease. Aids Patient Care STDS. 1999;13: 18597.
  • 42
    Kalichman SC, Ramachandran B, Catz S. Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapies in HIV patients of low health literacy. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14: 26773.
  • 43
    Tuldra A, Fumaz C, Ferrer MJ, et al. Prospective randomized two-arm controlled study to determine the efficacy of a specific intervention to improve long-term adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;25: 2218.
  • 44
    Gifford A, Bormann J, Shively M, Wright B, Richman D, Bozzette S. Predictors of self-reported adherence and plasma HIV concentration in patients on multidrug antiretroviral regimens. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;23: 38695.
  • 45
    Roberts KJ. Barriers to and facilitators of HIV-positive patients' adherence to antiretroviral treatment regimens. Aids Patient Care STDS. 2000;14: 15568.
  • 46
    Gordillo V, Del Amo J, Soriano V, Gonzalez-Lahoz J. Sociodemographic and psychological variables influencing adherence to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 1999;13: 17639.
  • 47
    Proctor VE, Tesfa A, Tompkins DC. Barriers to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy as expressed by people living with HIV/AIDS. Aids Patient Care STDS. 1999;13: 53544.
  • 48
    Meystre-Agustoni G, Dubois-Arber F, Cochand P, Telenti A. Antiretroviral therapies from the patient's perspective. AIDS Care. 2000;12: 71721.
  • 49
    Turner B, Newschaffer C, Zhang D, Cosler L, Hauck W. Antiretroviral use and pharmacy-based measurement of adherence in postpartum HIV infected women. Med Care. 2000;38: 91125.
  • 50
    Laine C, Newschaffer CJ, Zhang D, Cosler L, Hauck WW, Turner BJ. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy by pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a pharmacy claims-based analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95: 16773.
  • 51
    Moatti JP, Carrieri MP, Spire B, Gastaut JA, Cassuto JP, Moreau J. Adherence to HAART in French HIV-infected injecting drug users: the contribution of buprenorphine drug maintenance treatment. The Manif 2000 study group. AIDS. 2000;14: 1515.
  • 52
    Ostrop N, Hallett K, Gill J. Long-term patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Ann Pharmacother. 2000;34: 7039.
  • 53
    Leider JM, Kalkut G. Understanding adherence to HIV medication.[letter]. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132: 418.
  • 54
    Sherbourne C, Hays RD, Ordway L, DiMatteo R, Kravitz RL. Antecendents of adherence to medical recommendations: results from the medical outcomes study. J Behav Med. 1992;15: 44767.
  • 55
    Glasgow RE. Social-environmental factors in diabetes. Barriers to diabetes self-care. In: BradlelyC, ed. Handbook of Psychology and Diabetes Research and Practice. Berkshire, UK: Hardwood Academic; 1994: 33549.
  • 56
    Golin CE, Isasi F, Breny Bontempi J, Eng G. Secret pills: HIV-positive patients' experiences taking antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Educ and Prev. 2002;14: 31728.
  • 57
    Anderson L. Health care communication and selected psychological adherence in diabetes management. Diabetes Care. 1990;13: 667.
  • 58
    Rost K. The influence of patient participation on satisfaction and compliance. Diabetes Educ. 1989;15: 1348.
  • 59
    Street R, Piziak V, Carpentier W, et al. Provider-patient communication and metabolic control. Diabetes Care. 1993;16: 71421.
  • 60
    Kaplan SM, Greenfield S, Ware J. Assessing the effects of physician-patient interaction on the outcomes of chronic disease. Med Care. 1989;27: 11027.
  • 61
    Stewart M. What is a successful doctor-patient interview. A study of interactions and outcomes. Soc Sci Med. 1984;19: 16775.
  • 62
    Rost K, Carter WI. Introduction of information during the initial medical visit: consequences for patient follow-through with physician recommendations for medication. Soc Sci Med. 1989;28: 31521.
  • 63
    Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Ware JE Jr, Yano EM, Frank HJ. Patients' participation in medical care: effects on blood sugar control and quality of life in diabetes. J Gen Intern Med. 1988;3: 44857.
  • 64
    Korsch B, Gozzi E, Francis V. Gaps in doctor-patient communication. Doctor-patient interaction and patient satisfaction. Pediatrics. 1968;42: 85571.
  • 65
    Roter D, Hall J. Doctors Talking with Patients/Patients Talking with Doctors. Westport, Conn: Auburn House; 1993.
  • 66
    Hays RD, Cunningham WE, Sherbourne CD, et al. Health-related quality of life in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: Results from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study. Am J Med. 2000;108: 71422.
  • 67
    Ware JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD. A 12-item short-form health survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. Med Care. 1996;34: 22033.
  • 68
    Fleishman JA, Sherbourne CD, Crystal S, et al. Coping, conflictual social interactions, social support and mood among HIV-infected persons. Am J Community Psychol. 2000;28: 42153.
  • 69
    Parker RM, Baker DW, Williams MV, Nurss JR. The test of functional health literacy in adults: a new instrument for measuring patients' literacy skills. J Gen Intern Med. 1995;10: 53741.
  • 70
    Marin G, Sabogal F, Marin B, et al. Development of a short acculturation scale for Hispanics. Hisp J Behav Sci. 1987;9: 183205.
  • 71
    DiMatteo MR, Hays RD, Gritz E, et al. Factors affecting patient adherence to cancer control regimens: development and validation of a multivariate assessment instrument. Psychol Assess. 1993;5: 10212.
  • 72
    Hays RD, Shaul JA, Williams VSL, et al. Psychometric properties of the CAHPSTM 1.0 Survey measures. Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study. Med Care. 1999;37: MS2231.
  • 73
    Kao AC, Green DC, Davis NA, Koplan JP, Cleary PD. Patients' trust in their physicians: effects of choice, continuity, and payment method. J Gen Intern Med. 1998;13: 6816.
  • 74
    Kao AC, Green DC, Zaslavsky AM, Koplan JP, Cleary PD. The relationship between method of physician payment and patient trust. JAMA. 1998;280: 170814.
  • 75
    Cunningham WE, Markson LE, Andersen RM, et al. Prevalence and predictors of highly active antiretroviral therapy use in patients with HIV infection in the united states. HCSUS Consortium. HIV Cost and Services Utilization. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;25: 11523.
  • 76
    Sherbourne CD, Stewart AL. The MOS social support survey. Soc Sci Med. 1991;32: 70514.
  • 77
    Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav. 1983;24: 38596.
  • 78
    Liu HH, Weiss RE, Jennrich RI, Wenger NS. PRESS model selection in repeated measures data. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis. 1999;30: 16984.
  • 79
    Rigsby MO, Rosen MI, Beauvais JE, et al. Cue-dose training with monetary reinforcement: pilot study of an antiretroviral adherence intervention. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15: 8417.
  • 80
    Safren S, Boswell S, Johnson W, Salomon L, Mayer K. Initial outcome of an online paging system (MEDIMom) to increase adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Presented at the Eighth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infection, Chicago, February 2001.