• 1
    Osborne CK. Tamoxifen in the treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1998;339: 160918.
  • 2
    Chlebowski RT. Reducing the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1998;343: 1918.
  • 3
    Chlebowski RT, Col NF, Winer EP, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology technology assessment of pharmacologic interventions for breast cancer risk reduction including tamoxifen, raloxifene, and aromatase reduction. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20: 332843.
  • 4
    Anonymous. Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomized trials. Lancet. 1998;351: 145167.
  • 5
    Hasselblad V, McCrory DC. Meta-analytic tools for medical decision making: a practical guide. Med Decis Making. 1995;15: 8196.
  • 6
    Lau J, Ioannidis JP, Schmid CH. Quantitative synthesis in systematic reviews. Ann Int Med. 1997;127: 8206.
  • 7
    Berlin JA, Laird NM, Sacks HS, et al. A comparison of statistical methods for combining event rates from clinical trials. Stat Med. 1989;8: 14151.
  • 8
    Fisher B, Constantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al. Tamoxifen for the prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90: 137188.
  • 9
    Powles T, Eles R, Ashley S, et al. Interim analysis of the incidence of breast cancer in the Royal Marsden Hospital tamoxifen randomized chemoprevention trial. Lancet. 1998;252: 98101.
  • 10
    Veronesi U, Maisonneuve P, Costa A, et al. Prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen: preliminary findings from the Italian randomized trial among hysterectomized women. Lancet. 1998;352: 937.
  • 11
    Veronesi U, Maisonneuve P, Sacchini V, et al. Tamoxifen for breast cancer among hysterectomized women. Lancet. 2002;359: 11224.
  • 12
    IBIS Investigators. First results from the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS-1): a randomised prevention trial. Lancet. 2002;360: 81724.
  • 13
    Fisher B, Dignam J, Bryant J, et al. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes and estrogen receptor-positive tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88: 152942.
  • 14
    Fisher B, Constantino JP, Redmond CK, et al. Endometrial cancer in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-14. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994;86: 52737.
  • 15
    Constantino JP, Kuller LH, Ives DG, et al. Coronary heart disease mortality and adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89: 77682.
  • 16
    Barner M, Bacchi M, Goldhirsch A, et al. First isolated locoregional recurrence following mastectomy for breast cancer: results of a phase 3 multicenter study comparing systemic treatment with observation after excision and radiation. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12: 20717.
  • 17
    Ribeiro G, Swindell R. The Christie Hospital Adjuvant Tamoxifen Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1992;11: 1215.
  • 18
    Rutqvist LE, Johansson H. Signomklao, et al. Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for early stage breast cancer and secondary primary malignancies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87: 64551.
  • 19
    Ryden S, Ferno M, Moller T, et al. Long term effects of adjuvant tamoxifen and/or radiotherapy. Acta Oncol. 1992;31: 2714.
  • 20
    Andersson M, Storm HH, Mouridsen HT. Incidence of new primary cancers after adjuvant tamoxifen therapy and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83: 10137.
  • 21
    Dalberg K, Johansson H, Johansson U. A randomized trial of long term adjuvant tamoxifen plus postoperative radiation therapy versus radiation therapy alone for patients with early stage breast carcinoma treated with breast-conserving surgery. Cancer. 1998;82: 220411.
  • 22
    Rutqvist LE, Mattson A. Cardiac and thromboembolic morbidity among postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer in a randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85: 1398406.
  • 23
    Fornander T, Rutqvist LE, Cedermark B, et al. Adjuvant tamoxifen in early-stage breast cancer: effects on intercurrent morbidity and mortality. J Clin Oncol. 1991;9: 17408.
  • 24
    Cummings FJ, Gray R, Tormey DC, et al. Adjuvant tamoxifen versus placebo in elderly women with node-positive breast cancer: long term follow-up and causes of death. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11: 2935.
  • 25
    Alwyn van Zyl J, Muller AG. Tumor excision plus continuous tamoxifen compared with modified radical mastectomy in patients over 70 years of age with operable breast cancer. J Surg Oncol. 1995;59: 1514.
  • 26
    Ingle JN, Everson LK, Wieland HS, et al. Randomized trial of observation versus adjuvant therapy with cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil, prednisone with or without tamoxifen following mastectomy in postmenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1988;6: 138896.
  • 27
    Ingle JN, Everson LK, Weiland HS, et al. Randomized trial to evaluate the addition of tamoxifen to cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, prednisone adjuvant therapy in premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer. Cancer. 1989;63: 125764.
  • 28
    Rivkin SE, Green S, Metch B, et al. Adjuvant CMFVP versus tamoxifen versus concurrent CMFVP and tamoxifen for postmenopausal, node-positive, and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12: 207885.
  • 29
    Love RR, Wiebe DA, Feyzi JM, et al. Effects of tamoxifen on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women after 5 years of treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994;86: 15349.
  • 30
    Fisher B, Digham J, Wolmark N, et al. Tamoxifen in treatment of intraductal breast cancer: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-24 randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;353: 19932000.
  • 31
    Boccardo F, Rubagotti A, Amoroso D, et al. Chemotherapy versus tamoxifen versus chemotherapy plus tamoxifen in node-positive, estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer patients. An update at 7 years of the 1st GROCTA (Breast Cancer Adjuvant Chemo-hormone Therapy Cooperative Group) trial. Eur J Cancer. 1992;28: 67380.
  • 32
    Gundersen S, Hannisdal E, Soreide JA, et al. Adjuvant tamoxifen for pre- and postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive, node positive breast cancer: a randomized study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1995;36: 4953.
  • 33
    Stewart HJ. The Scottish trial of adjuvant tamoxifen in node-negative breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1992;11: 11720.
  • 34
    McDonald CC, Alexander FE, Whyte BW, et al. Cardiac and vascular morbidity in women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen for breast cancer in a randomized trial. BMJ. 1995;311: 97780.
  • 35
    McDonald CC, Stewart HJ. Fatal myocardial infarction in the Scottish adjuvant tamoxifen trial. BMJ. 1991;303: 4357.
  • 36
    Stewart HJ, Prescott RJ, Forrest PM. Scottish Adjuvant Tamoxifen Trial: a randomized study updated to 15 years. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93: 45662.
  • 37
    Taylor SG, Kalish LA, Olson JE, et al. Adjuvant CMFP versus CMFP plus tamoxifen versus observation alone in postmenopausal, node-positive breast cancer patients: three year results of an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol.1985;3: 14454.
  • 38
    Tormey DC, Gray R, Taylor SG, et al. Postoperative chemotherapy and chemohormonal therapy in women with node-positive breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1986;1: 7580.
  • 39
    Cocconi G, De Lisi V, Boni C, et al. Chemotherapy versus combination of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer. Cancer. 1983;51: 5818.
  • 40
    Cocconi G, Di Blasio B, Bisagni G, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in locally advanced breast carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 1990;13: 22632.
  • 41
    Robertson JR, Ellis IO, Elston CW, et al. Mastectomy of tamoxifen as initial therapy for operable breast cancer in elderly patients: 5 year follow-up. Eur J Cancer. 1992;28A: 90810.
  • 42
    Andersson M, Kamby C, Jensen MB, et al. Tamoxifen in high-risk premenopausal women with primary breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Report from the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group DBCG 82B Trial. Eur J Cancer. 1999;35: 165966.
  • 43
    The ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) Trialists’ Group. Anastrazol alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: first results of the ATAC randomized trial. Lancet. 2002;359: 21319.
  • 44
    Fisher B, Anderson S, Tan-, Chiu E, et al. Tamoxifen and chemotherapy for axillary node-negative, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B23. J Clin Onc. 2001;19: 93142.
  • 45
    Klijn JG, Beex LV, Mauriac L, et al. Combined treatment with buserelin and tamoxifen in premenopausal metastatic breast cancer: a randomized study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92: 90311.
  • 46
    Rusthoven JJ, Quirt IC, Iscoe NA, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the response rates of carmustine, dacarbazine, and cisplatin with and without tamoxifen in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol.1996;14: 208390.
  • 47
    Agarwala SS, Ferri W, Gooding W, et al. A phase 3 randomized trial of dacarbazine and carboplatin with and without tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 1999;85: 197984.
  • 48
    Cocconi G, Bella M, Calabresi F, et al. Treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma with dacarbazine plus tamoxifen. N Engl J Med. 1992;327: 51623.
  • 49
    Kinsinger LS, Harris R, Woolf SH, et al. Chemoprevention of breast cancer: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137: 5967.
  • 50
    Newcomb P, Solomon C, White E. Tamoxifen and risk of large bowel cancer in women with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1999;53: 2717.
  • 51
    Matsuyama Y, Tominaga T, Nomura Y, et al. Second cancers after adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer in Japan. Ann Oncol. 2000;11: 133743.
  • 52
    Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA. 2002;288: 32133.
  • 53
    Williams KJ, Wagner JD, Zhang L, et al. Tamoxifen inhibits arterial accumulation of LDL degradation products and progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in monkeys. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17: 4038.
  • 54
    Williams KJ, Honore EK, Adams MR. Contrasting effects of conjugated estrogens and tamoxifen on dilator responses of atherosclerotic epicardial coronary arteries nonhuman primates. Circulation. 1997;96: 197075.
  • 55
    Clarke SC, Schofield PM, Grace AA, et al. Tamoxifen effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors in men with advanced atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2001;103: 1497502.
  • 56
    Love RR, Wiebe DA, Newcomb PA, et al. Effects of tamoxifen on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med. 1991;115: 8604.
  • 57
    Cushman M, Tracy JP, Song RP, et al. Tamoxifen and cardiac risk factors in healthy women: suggestion of an anti-inflammatory effect. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21: 25561.
  • 58
    Figtree GA, Webb CM, Collins P. Tamoxifen acutely relaxes coronary arteries by an endothelium-, nitric oxide-, and estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;295: 51923.
  • 59
    Love RR, Surawicz TS, Williams EC. Antithrombin III level, fibrinogen level, and platelet count changes with adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152: 31720.
  • 60
    Reis SE, Constantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al. Cardiovascular effects of tamoxifen in women with and without heart disease: breast cancer prevention trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93: 1621.
  • 61
    Barrett-Connor E, Grady D, Sashegyi A, et al. Raloxifene and cardiovascular events in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. JAMA. 2002;287: 84757.
  • 62
    Kuzick J. Update on new studies in Europe. Eur J Cancer. 2002;38: S20.