The reported decrease of platelet serotonin receptors in patients with migraine could be due to an autoimmune reaction. We, therefore, examined sera from 42 migraineurs without aura, 26 migraineurs with aura, and 107 headache-free blood donors for platelet-reactive antibodies using the platelet adhesion immunofluorescence test, the NIH-lymphocytotoxicity test, and the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens test. IgG antibodies against non-HLA class I platelet antigens were found in 9.5% of patients with migraine without aura, 7.6% of patients with migraine with aura, and in 7.5% of controls; IgM antibodies were found in 11.9% of patients with migraine without aura, in 30.8% of patients with migraine with aura, and in 13.1% of controls. Most antibodies ware directed against glycoprotein complexes IIb-IIIa (fibrinogen receptor) or IB-IX (thrombin receptor). Two patients with migraine without aura but no patient with migraine with aura nor any control subject had IgG antibodies of unknown specificity. One patient (2.4%) with migraine without aura and two patients (7.7%) with migraine with aura, as well as 2 controls (1.9%) had IgM antibodies not further specified. The differences in frequency of platelet antibodies of known or unknown specificity in patients with migraine without aura and migraine with aura and controls were not statistically significant. Therefore, our data do not support the hypothesis of a pathophysiologically relevant autoimmune reaction against platelet serotonin receptors in the majority of patients with migraine. We can not exclude the occurrence of antibodies against neuron-specific serotonin receptors.