Relationship of Locus of Control in Women With Migraine and Healthy Volunteers

Authors

  • Christian Lampl MD,

    1. Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Pain and Headache Center (Drs. Lampl, Haas, Yazdi, and Buzath, and Ms. Heuberger) and Trauma Surgery (Dr. Kemetzhofer), General Hospital, Linz, Austria.
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  • Barbara Heuberger MRCPsych,

    1. Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Pain and Headache Center (Drs. Lampl, Haas, Yazdi, and Buzath, and Ms. Heuberger) and Trauma Surgery (Dr. Kemetzhofer), General Hospital, Linz, Austria.
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  • Selina Haas MD,

    1. Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Pain and Headache Center (Drs. Lampl, Haas, Yazdi, and Buzath, and Ms. Heuberger) and Trauma Surgery (Dr. Kemetzhofer), General Hospital, Linz, Austria.
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  • Kambiz Yazdi MD,

    1. Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Pain and Headache Center (Drs. Lampl, Haas, Yazdi, and Buzath, and Ms. Heuberger) and Trauma Surgery (Dr. Kemetzhofer), General Hospital, Linz, Austria.
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  • Andrea Buzath MD,

    1. Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Pain and Headache Center (Drs. Lampl, Haas, Yazdi, and Buzath, and Ms. Heuberger) and Trauma Surgery (Dr. Kemetzhofer), General Hospital, Linz, Austria.
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  • Peter Kemetzhofer MD

    1. Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Pain and Headache Center (Drs. Lampl, Haas, Yazdi, and Buzath, and Ms. Heuberger) and Trauma Surgery (Dr. Kemetzhofer), General Hospital, Linz, Austria.
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Address all correspondence to Dr. Christian Lampl, Pain and Headache Center, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, General Hospital, Krankenhausstrasse 9, 4020 Linz, Austria.

Abstract

Objective.—To investigate potential differences in various aspects of personality in women with migraine with aura, without aura, and in healthy volunteers.

Methods.—The following instruments were used to evaluate a sample of 35 women with migraine with aura, 35 women with migraine without aura, and 35 healthy women: Locus of Control and Competence Questionnaire, Health Locus of Control Questionnaire, Trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the depression scale by von Zerssen.

Results.—There were no significant differences in generalized locus of control beliefs among the 3 groups. Migraineurs with aura were found to score very low on the social locus of control scale. Statistically significant differences were found regarding anxiety in migraineurs with aura as opposed to migraineurs without aura and healthy control subjects. As for depression, migraineurs with aura were significantly more likely to indicate feelings of worthlessness and lack of self-confidence.

Conclusions.—Our results suggest that migraineurs with aura differ from migraineurs without aura and healthy control subjects in terms of anxiety and depression. With regard to health-related locus of control, there was no correlation among mean number of migraine attacks per year, duration of disease, time of last migraine attack, and number of aura symptoms.

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