• 1
    Lasch K. Culture and pain. Pain Clin Update 2002;10: 5.
  • 2
    Ad Hoc Committee on Cancer Pain of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Cancer pain assessment and treatment curriculum guidelines. Support Care Cancer 1993;1: 6773.
  • 3
    American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Rheumatoid Arthritis Guidelines. Guidelines for the management of rheumatoid arthritis: 2002 update. Arthritis Rheum 2002;46: 32846.
  • 4
    Jacox A, Carr DB, Payne R. New clinical-practice guidelines for the management of pain in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med 1994;330: 6515.
  • 5
    American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pain Management, Cancer Pain Section. Practice guidelines for cancer pain management. Anesthesiology 1996;84: 124357.
  • 6
    American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pain Management, Acute PainSection. Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting. Anesthesiology 1995;82: 107181.
  • 7
    Fishbain DA, Rosomoff HL, Steele-Rosomoff R, Cutler BR. Types of pain treatment facilities and referral selection criteria. A review. Arch Fam Med 1995;4: 5866.
  • 8
    Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Acute pain management: Operative or medical procedures and trauma, part 2. Clin Pharm 1992;11: 391414.
  • 9
    McCrory DC, Matchar DB, Gray RN, Rosenberg JH, Silberstein SD. Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache: Overview of program description and methodology. American Academy of Neurology US Headache Consortium; 2000. Available at:
  • 10
    American Pain Society Quality of Care Committee. Quality improvement guidelines for the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain. JAMA 1995;274: 187480.
  • 11
    Berry PH, Dahl JL. The new JCAHO pain standards: Implications for pain management nurses. Pain Manag Nurs 2000;1: 312.
  • 12
    Anderson GF, Hussey PS. Population aging: A comparison among industrialized countries. Health Aff (Millwood) 2000;19: 191203.
  • 13
    National Academy of Sciences IoMSC. Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care 2002.
  • 14
    Johnson S. Introduction: Legal and regulatory issues in pain management. J Law Med Ethics 1998;26: 2656.
  • 15
    Bonham VL. Race, ethnicity, and pain treatment: Striving to understand the causes and solutions to the disparities in pain treatment. J Law Med Ethics 2001;29: 5268.
  • 16
    Lasch KE. Culture, pain, and culturally sensitive pain care. Pain Manag Nurs 2000;1(suppl 1): 1622.
  • 17
    Todd KH, Samaroo N, Hoffman JR. Ethnicity as a risk factor for inadequate emergency department analgesia. JAMA 1993;269: 15379.
  • 18
    Kirkman-Liff B, Mondragon D. Language of interview: Relevance for research of southwest Hispanics. Am J Public Health 1991;81: 1399404.
  • 19
    Todd KH, Lee T, Hoffman JR. The effect of ethnicity on physician estimates of pain severity in patients with isolated extremity trauma. JAMA 1994;271: 9258.
  • 20
    Todd KH, Deaton C, D’Adamo AP, Goe L. Ethnicity and analgesic practice. Ann Emerg Med 2000;35: 116.
  • 21
    Lee WW, Burelbach AE, Fosnocht D. Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patient pain management expectations. Am J Emerg Med 2001;19: 54950.
  • 22
    Hostetler MA, Auinger P, Szilagyi PG. Parenteral analgesic and sedative use among ED patients in the United States: Combined results from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) 1992–1997. Am J Emerg Med 2002;20: 13943.
  • 23
    Bartfield JM, Salluzzo RF, Raccio-Robak N, Funk DL, Verdile VP. Physician and patient factors influencing the treatment of low back pain. Pain 1997;73: 20911.
  • 24
    Fuentes EF, Kohn MA, Neighbor ML. Lack of association between patient ethnicity or race and fracture analgesia. Acad Emerg Med 2002;9: 9105.
  • 25
    Ng B, Dimsdale JE, Shragg GP, Deutsch R. Ethnic Differences in analgesic consumption for postoperative pain. Psychosom Med 1996;58: 1259.
  • 26
    Ng B, Dimsdale JE, Rollnik JD, Shapiro H. The effect of ethnicity on prescriptions for patient-controlled analgesia for post-operative pain. Pain 1996;66: 912.
  • 27
    Vallerand A, Riley-Doucet C, Hasenau S, Templin T. Disparities in cancer-related pain in the outpatient clinic population. Pain 2003;4:2(suppl 1): 2.
  • 28
    Cleeland CS, Gonin R, Hatfield AK, Edmonson JH, Blum RH, Stewart JA, Pandya KJ. Pain and its treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer. N Engl J Med 1994;330: 5926.
  • 29
    Cleeland CS, Gonin R, Baez L, Loehrer P, Pandya KJ. Pain and treatment of pain in minority patients with cancer. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Minority Outpatient Pain Study. Ann Intern Med 1997;127: 8136.
  • 30
    Anderson KO, Mendoza TR, Valero V, Richman SP, Russell C, Hurley J, DeLeon C, Washington P, Palos G, Payne R, Cleeland CS. Minority cancer patients and their providers: Pain management attitudes and practice. Cancer 2000;88: 192938.
  • 31
    Morrison RS, Wallenstein S, Natale DK, Senzel RS, Huang LL. “We don’t carry that”—Failure of pharmacies in predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods to stock opioid analgesics. N Engl J Med 2000;342: 10236.
  • 32
    Bernabei R, Gambassi G, Lapane K, Landi F, Gatsonis C, Dunlop R, Lipsitz L, Steel K, Mor V. Management of pain in elderly patients with cancer. SAGE Study Group. Systematic assessment of geriatric drug use via epidemiology. JAMA 1998;279: 187782.
  • 33
    Collins K, Hall A, Neuhaus C. U.S. minority health: A chartbook. New York: The Commonwealth Fund; 1999.
  • 34
    Nerenz DR, Bonham VL, Green-Weir R, Joseph C, Gunter M. Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health care: Can health plans generate reports? Health Aff (Millwood) 2002;21: 25963.
  • 35
    Mathias SD, Kuppermann M, Liberman RF, Lipschutz RC, Steege JF. Chronic pelvic pain: Prevalence, health-related quality of life, and economic correlates. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87: 3217.
  • 36
    Becker N, Hojsted J, Sjogren P, Eriksen J. Sociodemographic predictors of treatment outcome in chronic non-malignant pain patients. Do patients receiving or applying for disability pension benefit from multidisciplinary pain treatment? Pain 1998;77: 27987.
  • 37
    Herr KA, Mobily PR. Chronic pain and depression. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 1992;30: 712.
  • 38
    Menefee LA, Frank ED, Doghramji K, Picarello K, Park JJ, Jalali S, Perez-Schwartz L. Self-reported sleep quality and quality of life for individuals with chronic pain conditions. Clin J Pain 2000;16: 2907.
  • 39
    Smith BH, Elliott AM, Chambers WA, Smith WC, Hannaford PC, Penny K. The impact of chronic pain in the community. Fam Pract 2001;18: 2929.
  • 40
    Latham J, Davis BD. The socioeconomic impact of chronic pain. Disabil Rehabil 1994;16: 3944.
  • 41
    Tait RC, Duckro PN, Margolis RB, Wiener R. Quality of life following treatment: A preliminary study of in- and outpatients with chronic pain. Int J Psychiatry Med 1988;18: 27182.
  • 42
    Hunfeld JA, Perquin CW, Bertina W, Hazebroek-Kampschreur AA, Van Suijlekom-Smit LW, Koes BW, Van Der Wouden JC, Passchier J. Stability of pain parameters and pain-related quality of life in adolescents with persistent pain: A three-year follow-up. Clin J Pain 2002;18: 99106.
  • 43
    Luggen AS. Chronic pain in older adults. A quality of life issue. J Gerontol Nurs 1998;24: 4854.
  • 44
    Haefner HK, Khoshnevisan MH, Bachman JE, Flowe-Valencia HD, Green CR, Reed BD. Use of the McGill Pain Questionnaire to compare women with vulvar pain, pelvic pain and headaches. J Reprod Med 2000;45: 66571.
  • 45
    Bates MS, Edwards WT. Ethnic variations in the chronic pain experience. Ethn Dis 1992;2: 6383.
  • 46
    Ferrell BR. The impact of pain on quality of life. A decade of research. Nurs Clin North Am 1995;30: 60924.
  • 47
    Bates MS, Edwards WT, Anderson KO. Ethnocultural influences on variation in chronic pain perception. Pain 1993;52: 10112.
  • 48
    Edwards RR, Doleys DM, Fillingim RB, Lowery D. Ethnic differences in pain tolerance: Clinical implications in a chronic pain population. Psychosom Med 2001;63: 31623.
  • 49
    Edwards CL, Fillingim RB, Keefe F. Race, ethnicity and pain: A review. Pain 2001;94: 1337.
  • 50
    McCracken LM, Matthews AK, Tang TS, Cuba SL. A comparison of blacks and whites seeking treatment for chronic pain. Clin J Pain 2001;17: 24955.
  • 51
    Riley JL 3rd, Wade JB, Myers CD, Sheffield D, Papas RK, Price DD. Racial/ethnic differences in the experience of chronic pain. Pain 2002;100: 2918.
  • 52
    Green CR, Baker TA, Smith EM, Sato Y. The effect of race in older adults presenting for chronic pain management: A comparative study of African and Caucasian Americans. J Pain 2003;4: 8290.
  • 53
    Green CR, Baker TA, Sato Y, Washington TL, Smith EM. Race and chronic pain: A comparative study of young African and Caucasian Americans presenting for management. J Pain 2003;4: 17683.
  • 54
    Riley JL 3rd, Gilbert GH, Heft MW. Race/ethnic differences in health care use for orofacial pain among older adults. Pain 2002;100: 11930.
  • 55
    Ibrahim SA, Siminoff LA, Burant CJ, Kwoh CK. Differences in expectations of outcome mediate African American/white patient differences in “willingness” to consider joint replacement. Arthritis Rheum 2002;46: 242935.
  • 56
    Dworkin SF, Von Korff M, LeResche L. Multiple pains and psychiatric disturbance. An epidemiologic investigation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990;47: 23944.
  • 57
    Pappagallo M, Heinberg LJ. Ethical issues in the management of chronic nonmalignant pain. Semin Neurol 1997;17: 20311.
  • 58
    Fishbain DA, Goldberg M, Meagher BR, Steele R, Rosomoff H. Male and female chronic pain patients categorized by DSM-III psychiatric diagnostic criteria. Pain 1986;26: 18197.
  • 59
    Fishbain DA, Cutler R, Rosomoff HL, Rosomoff RS. Chronic pain-associated depression: Antecedent or consequence of chronic pain? A review. Clin J Pain 1997;13: 11637.
  • 60
    Geisser ME, Roth RS, Bachman JE, Eckert TA. The relationship between symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and pain, affective disturbance and disability among patients with accident and non-accident related pain. Pain 1996;66: 20714.
  • 61
    Geisser ME, Roth RS, Robinson ME. Assessing depression among persons with chronic pain using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory: A comparative analysis. Clin J Pain 1997;13: 16370.
  • 62
    Morin CM, Gibson D, Wade J. Self-reported sleep and mood disturbance in chronic pain patients. Clin J Pain 1998;14: 3114.
  • 63
    Smith MT, Perlis ML, Smith MS, Giles DE, Carmody TP. Sleep quality and presleep arousal in chronic pain. J Behav Med 2000;23: 113.
  • 64
    Kulich RJ, Mencher P, Bertrand C, Maciewicz R. Comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain: Implications for clinical and forensic assessment. Curr Rev Pain 2000;4: 3648.
  • 65
    Geisser ME, Roth RS, Theisen ME, Robinson ME, Riley TL 3rd. Negative affect, self-report of depressive symptoms, and clinical depression: Relation to the experience of chronic pain. Clin J Pain 2000;16: 11020.
  • 66
    Gibson SJ, Helme RD. Cognitive factors and the experience of pain and suffering in older persons. Pain 2000;85: 37583.
  • 67
    Baker FM. Diagnosing depression in African Americans. Community Ment Health J 2001;37: 318.
  • 68
    Mouton CP. Special health considerations in African-American elders. Am Fam Physician 1997;55: 124353.
  • 69
    Jackson-Triche ME, Greer Sullivan J, Wells KB, Rogers W, Camp P, Mazel R. Depression and health-related quality of life in ethnic minorities seeking care in general medical settings. J Affect Disord 2000;58: 8997.
  • 70
    Robison J, Gruman C, Gaztambide S, Blank K. Screening for depression in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican primary care patients. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002;57: M30880.
  • 71
    Walls CT, Zarit SH. Informal support from black churches and the well-being of elderly blacks. Gerontologist 1991;31: 4905.
  • 72
    Edwards R, Augustson EM, Fillingim R. Sex-specific effects of pain-related anxiety on adjustment to chronic pain. Clin J Pain 2000;16: 4653.
  • 73
    Fillingim RB. Sex, gender, and pain: Women and men really are different. Curr Rev Pain 2000;4: 2430.
  • 74
    Turner JA, Jensen MP, Romano JM. Do beliefs, coping, and catastrophizing independently predict functioning in patients with chronic pain? Pain 2000;85: 11525.
  • 75
    Keefe FJ, Lefebvre JC, Egert JR, Affleck G, Sullivan MJ, Caldwell DS. The relationship of gender to pain, pain behavior, and disability in osteoarthritis patients: The role of catastrophizing. Pain 2000;87: 32534.
  • 76
    Keefe FJ, Affleck G, Underwood L, Caldwell DS, Drew J, Gibson J, Lefebure J, Pargament K. Living with rheumatoid arthritis: The role of daily spirituality and daily religious and spiritual coping. J Pain 2001;2: 10110.
  • 77
    Krause N. Neighborhood deterioration, religious coping, and changes in health during late life. Gerontologist 1998;38: 65364.
  • 78
    Fillingim RB, Wilkinson CS, Powell T. Self-reported abuse history and pain complaints among young adults. Clin J Pain 1999;15: 8591.
  • 79
    Riley JL 3rd, Robinson ME, Kvaal SA, Gremillion HA. Effects of physical and sexual abuse in facial pain: Direct or mediated? Cranio 1998;16: 25966.
  • 80
    Green CR, Flowe-Valencia H, Rosenblum L, Tait AR. The role of childhood and adulthood abuse among women presenting for chronic pain management. Clin J Pain 2001;17: 35964.
  • 81
    Green CR, Flowe-Valencia H, Rosenblum L, Tait AR. Do physical and sexual abuse differentially affect chronic pain states in women? J Pain Symptom Manage 1999;18: 4206.
  • 82
    Campbell LC, Riley JL 3rd, Kashikar-Zuck S, Gremillion H, Robinson ME. Somatic, affective, and pain characteristics of chronic TMD patients with sexual versus physical abuse histories. J Orofac Pain 2000;14: 1129.
  • 83
    James SA, Keenan NL, Strogatz DS, Browning SR, Garrett JM. Socioeconomic status, John Henryism, and blood pressure in black adults. The Pitt County Study. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135: 5967.
  • 84
    James SA, Strogatz DS, Wing SB, Ramsey DL. Socioeconomic status, John Henryism, and hypertension in blacks and whites. Am J Epidemiol 1987;126: 66473.
  • 85
    James SA, LaCroix AZ, Kleinbaum DG, Strogatz DS. John Henryism and blood pressure differences among black men. II. The role of occupational stressors. J Behav Med 1984;7: 25975.
  • 86
    James SA, Hartnett SA, Kalsbeek WD. John Henryism and blood pressure differences among black men. J Behav Med 1983;6: 25978.
  • 87
    Mayberry RM, Mili F, Ofili E. Racial and ethnic differences in access to medical care. Med Care Res Rev 2000;57(suppl 1): 10845.
  • 88
    Green CR, Baker T, Washington T. Health care attitudes and utilization in chronic pain patients: A comparison of African and Caucasian Americans. Pain 2003;4:2(suppl 1): 97.
  • 89
    Lillie-Blanton M, Brodie M, Rowland D, Altman D, McIntosh M. Race, ethnicity, and the health care system: Public perceptions and experiences. Med Care Res Rev 2000;57(suppl 1): 21835.
  • 90
    Williams DR, Lavizzo-Mourey R, Warren RC. The concept of race and health status in America. Public Health Rep 1994;109: 2641.
  • 91
    Williams DR, Jackson JS. Race/Ethnicity and the 2000 census: Recommendations for African American and other black populations in the United States. Am J Public Health 2000;90: 172830.
  • 92
    Williams DR. Racial/ethnic variations in women's health: The social embeddedness of health. Am J Public Health 2002;92: 58897.
  • 93
    Williams DR. Race, socioeconomic status, and health. The added effects of racism and discrimination. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;896: 17388.
  • 94
    Schulman KA, Berlin JA, Harless W, Kerner JF, Sistrunk S, Gersh BJ, Dube R, Taleghani CK, Burke JE, Williams S, Eisenberg JM, Escarce JJ. The effect of race and sex on physicians’ recommendations for cardiac catheterization. N Engl J Med 1999;340: 61826.
  • 95
    Green CR, Tait A. Attitudes of health care professionals regarding different modalities used to manage acute postoperative pain. Acute Pain 2001;4: 521.
  • 96
    Green CR, Wheeler JR, LaPorte F, Marchant B, Guerrero E. How well is chronic pain managed? Who does it well? Pain Med 2002;3: 5665.
  • 97
    Greenwald BD, Narcessian EJ, Pomeranz BA. Assessment of physiatrists’ knowledge and perspectives on the use of opioids: Review of basic concepts for managing chronic pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1999;78: 40815.
  • 98
    Turk DC. Clinicians’ attitudes about prolonged use of opioids and the issue of patient heterogeneity. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1996;11: 21830.
  • 99
    Weinstein SM, Laux LF, Thornby JI, Lorimor RJ, Hill CSJr, Thorpe DM, Merrill JM. Physicians’ attitudes toward pain and the use of opioid analgesics: Results of a survey from the Texas Cancer Pain Initiative. South Med J 2000;93: 47987.
  • 100
    Weinstein SM, Laux LF, Thornby JI, Lorimor RJ, Hill CSJr, Thorpe DM, Merrill JM. Medical students’ attitudes toward pain and the use of opioid analgesics: Implications for changing medical school curriculum. South Med J 2000;93: 4728.
  • 101
    Mortimer JE, Bartlett NL. Assessment of knowledge about cancer pain management by physicians in training. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997;14: 218.
  • 102
    Verhoef MJ, Sutherland LR. General practitioners’ assessment of and interest in alternative medicine in Canada. Soc Sci Med 1995;41: 5115.
  • 103
    Ger LP, Ho ST, Wang JJ. Physicians’ knowledge and attitudes toward the use of analgesics for cancer pain management: A survey of two medical centers in Taiwan. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;20: 33544.
  • 104
    De Wit R, Van Dam F, Zandbelt L, Van Buuren A, Van Der Heijden K, Leenhouts G, Loonstra S. A pain education program for chronic cancer pain patients: Follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial. Pain 1997;73: 5569.
  • 105
    Green CR, Wheeler J, Marchant B, LaPorte F, Guerrero E. Analysis of the physician variable in pain management. Pain Med 2001;2: 31727.
  • 106
    Green CR, Wheeler JR. Physician variability in the management of acute postoperative and cancer pain: A quantitative analysis of the Michigan experience. Pain Medicine 2003;4: 820.
  • 107
    Green CR, Wheeler JC, LaPorte F. Clinical decision making in pain management: Contributions of physician and patient characteristics to variations in practice. J Pain 2003;4: 2939.
  • 108
    Gatchel RJ, Polatin PB, Kinney RK. Predicting outcome of chronic back pain using clinical predictors of psychopathology: A prospective analysis. Health Psychol 1995;14: 41520.
  • 109
    Welch LS, Hunting KL, Nessel-Stephens L. Chronic symptoms in construction workers treated for musculoskeletal injuries. Am J Ind Med 1999;36: 53240.
  • 110
    Chibnall J, Dabney A, Tait R. Internist judgements of chronic low back pain. Pain Med 2000;1: 2317.
  • 111
    Chibnall JT, Tait RC, Merys SC. Disability management of low back injuries by employer-retained physicians: Ratings and costs. Am J Ind Med 2000;38: 52938.
  • 112
    Tait RC, Chibnall JT. Work injury management of refractory low back pain: Relations with ethnicity, legal representation and diagnosis. Pain 2001;91: 4756.
  • 113
    Benjamin LJ, Dampier CD, Jacox A, Odesina V, Phoenix D, Shapiro BS, Strafford M, Treadwell M. Guideline for the management of acute and chronic pain in sickle-cell disease. Glenview, IL: American Pain Society; 1999.
  • 114
    Waters J, Thomas V. Pain from sickle-cell crisis. Nurs Times 1995;91: 2931.
  • 115
    Yale SH, Nagib N, Guthrie T. Approach to the vaso-occlusive crisis in adults with sickle cell disease. Am Fam Physician 2000;61: 134956, 1363–4.
  • 116
    Gil KM, Anthony KK, Carson JW, Redding-Lallinger R, Daeschner CW, Ware RE. Daily coping practice predicts treatment effects in children with sickle cell disease. J Pediatr Psychol 2001;26: 16373.
  • 117
    Telfair J, Myers J, Drezner S. Does race influence the provision of care to persons with sickle cell disease? Perceptions of multidisciplinary providers. J Health Care Poor Underserved 1998;9: 18495.
  • 118
    Gil KM, Carson JW, Sedway JA, Porter LS, Schaeffer JJ, Orringer E. Follow-up of coping skills training in adults with sickle cell disease: Analysis of daily pain and coping practice diaries. Health Psychol 2000;19: 8590.
  • 119
    Dinges DF, Whitehouse WG, Orne EC, Bloom PB, Carlin MM, Bauer NK, Gillen KA, Shapiro BS, Ohene-Frempong K, Dampier C, Orne MT. Self-hypnosis training as an adjunctive treatment in the management of pain associated with sickle cell disease. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 1997;45: 41732.
  • 120
    Broome ME, Maikler V, Kelber S, Bailey P, Lea G. An intervention to increase coping and reduce health care utilization for school-age children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. J Natl Black Nurses Assoc 2001;12: 614.
  • 121
    Zeltzer L, Dash J, Holland JP. Hypnotically induced pain control in sickle cell anemia. Pediatrics 1979;64: 5336.
  • 122
    Helme RD, Gibson SJ. The epidemiology of pain in elderly people. Clin Geriatr Med 2001;17: 41731, v.
  • 123
    Administration on Aging. 1994–1995 National Health Interview Survey on Disability (Phase I), NCHS, CDC, U.S. DHHS. Number and percent of persons reporting problems with two or more activities of daily living (ADLs), by age, race, gender, poverty, living arrangements, region, and area of residence. Available at:
  • 124
    Lichtenberg PA, Skehan MW, Swensen CH. The role of personality, recent life stress and arthritic severity in predicting pain. J Psychosom Res 1984;28: 2316.
  • 125
    Won A, Lapane K, Gambassi G, Bernabei R, Mor V, Lipsitz LA. Correlates and management of nonmalignant pain in the nursing home. SAGE Study Group. Systematic assessment of geriatric drug use via epidemiology. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47: 93642.
  • 126
    Helme R, Gibson S. Pain in older people. In: Crombie IK, editor. Epidemiology of pain. Seattle: IASP Press; 1999. p. 10312.
  • 127
    Mobily PR, Herr KA, Clark MK, Wallace RB. An epidemiologic analysis of pain in the elderly. J Aging Health 1994;6: 13954.
  • 128
    American Geriatrics Society. The management of chronic pain in older persons: AGS Panel on Chronic Pain in Older Persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46: 63551.
  • 129
    Cohen FL. Postsurgical pain relief: Patients’ status and nurses’ medication choices. Pain 1980;9: 26574.
  • 130
    Marks RM, Sachar EJ. Undertreatment of medical inpatients with narcotic analgesics. Ann Intern Med 1973;78: 17381.
  • 131
    Morrison RS, Siu AL. A comparison of pain and its treatment in advanced dementia and cognitively intact patients with hip fracture. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;19: 2408.
  • 132
    Marcantonio E, Ta T, Duthie E, Resnick NM. Delirium severity and psychomotor types: Their relationship with outcomes after hip fracture repair. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50: 8507.
  • 133
    Morrison RS, Magaziner J, Gilbert M, Koval KJ, McLaughlin MA, Orosz G, Strauss E, Siu AL. Relationship between pain and opioid analgesics on the development of delirium following hip fracture. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003;58: 7681.
  • 134
    Johnson-Umezulike JM. A comparison of pain perception of elderly African Americans and Caucasians. Nursingconnections 1999;12: 512.
  • 135
    Whitfield KE, Baker-Thomas T. Individual differences in aging minorities. Int J Aging Hum Dev 1999;48: 739.
  • 136
    Rollman GB. Cultural clinical psychology: Theory, research, and practice. In: Kazarian SS ED, editor. Culture and pain. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. p. 26786.
  • 137
    Zatzick DF, Dimsdale JE. Cultural variations in response to painful stimuli. Psychosom Med 1990;52: 54457.
  • 138
    Chapman W, Jones C. Variations in cutaneous and visceral pain sensitivity in normal subjects. Clin Invest 1944;23: 8191.
  • 139
    Clark WC, Clark SB. Pain responses in Nepalese porters. Science 1980;209: 4102.
  • 140
    Woodrow KM, Friedman GD, Siegelaub AB, Collen MF. Pain tolerance: Differences according to age, sex and race. Psychosom Med 1972;34: 54856.
  • 141
    Walsh NE, Schoenfeld L, Ramamurthy S, Hoffman J. Normative model for cold pressor test. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1989;68: 611.
  • 142
    Edwards RR, Fillingim RB. Ethnic differences in thermal pain responses. Psychosom Med 1999;61: 34654.
  • 143
    Sheffield D, Biles PL, Orom H, Maixner W, Sheps DS. Race and sex differences in cutaneous pain perception. Psychosom Med 2000;62: 51723.
  • 144
    Nayak S, Shiflett S, Eshun S, Levine F. Culture and gender effects in pain beliefs and the prediction of pain tolerance. Comp Soc Sci 2000;34: 13551.
  • 145
    Campbell C, Fillingim R, Edwards RR. Ethnic differences in responses to multiple experimental pain stimuli. Pain 2003;4(suppl 1): 96.
  • 146
    Clauw DJ, Williams D, Lauerman W, Dahlman M, Aslami A, Nachemson AL, Kobrine AI, Wiesel SW. Pain sensitivity as a correlate of clinical status in individuals with chronic low back pain. Spine 1999;24: 203541.
  • 147
    Fillingim RB, Maixner W, Kincaid S, Sigurdsson A, Harris MB. Pain sensitivity in patients with temporomandibular disorders: Relationship to clinical and psychosocial factors. Clin J Pain 1996;12: 2609.
  • 148
    Langemark M, Jensen K, Jensen TS, Olesen J. Pressure pain thresholds and thermal nociceptive thresholds in chronic tension-type headache. Pain 1989;38: 20310.
  • 149
    Edwards RR, Fillingim RB. Age-associated differences in responses to noxious stimuli. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56: M1805.
  • 150
    Fillingim RB, Edwards RR, Powell T. The relationship of sex and clinical pain to experimental pain responses. Pain 1999;83: 41925.
  • 151
    Lawlis GF, Achterberg J, Kenner L, Kopetz K. Ethnic and sex differences in response to clinical and induced pain in chronic spinal pain patients. Spine 1984;9: 7514.
  • 152
    Jordan MS, Lumley MA, Leisen JC. The relationships of cognitive coping and pain control beliefs to pain and adjustment among African-American and Caucasian women with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1998;11: 808.
  • 153
    Ward SE, Hernandez L. Patient-related barriers to management of cancer pain in Puerto Rico. Pain 1994;58: 2338.
  • 154
    Cleeland CS. Measurement of pain by subjective report. In: Chapman CR, Loeser JD, editors. Issues in pain measurement. New York: Raven Press, Ltd.; 1989. p. 391403.
  • 155
    Thomason TE, McCune JS, Bernard SA, Winer EP, Tremont S, Lindley CM. Cancer pain survey: Patient-centered issues in control. J Pain Symptom Manage 1998;15: 27584.
  • 156
    Ward SE, Goldberg N, Miller-McCauley V, Mueller C, Nolan A, Pawlik-Plank D, Robbins A, Stormoen D, Weissman DE. Patient-related barriers to management of cancer pain. 1993;52: 31924.
  • 157
    Anderson KO, Richman SP, Hurley J, Palos G, Valero V, Mendoza TR, Gning I, Cleeland CS. Cancer pain management among underserved minority outpatients: Perceived needs and bar-riers to optimal control. Cancer 2002;94: 2295304.
  • 158
    Juarez G, Ferrell B, Borneman T. Influence of culture on cancer pain management in Hispanic patients. Cancer Pract 1998;6: 2629.
  • 159
    Juarez G, Ferrell B, Borneman T. Cultural considerations in education for cancer pain management. J Cancer Educ 1999;14: 16873.
  • 160
    Oliver JW, Kravitz RL, Kaplan SH, Meyers FJ. Individualized patient education and coaching to improve pain control among cancer outpatients. J Clin Oncol 2001;19: 220612.
  • 161
    Wells N, Hepworth JT, Murphy BA, Wujcik D, Johnson R. Improving cancer pain management through patient and family education. J Pain Symptom Manage 2003;25: 34456.
  • 162
    Anderson K, Palos G, Gning I, Mendoza TR, Sanchez M, Valero V, Richman SD, Nazario A, Hurley J, Payne R, Cleeland CS. Multi-site randomized trial of pain management education for minority outpatients with cancer pain. Pain 2003;4(suppl 1): 95.
  • 163
    Kaplan SH, Gandek B, Greenfield S, Rogers W, Ware JE. Patient and visit characteristics related to physicians’ participatory decision-making style. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Med Care 1995;33: 117687.
  • 164
    Cooper-Patrick L, Gallo JJ, Gonzales JJ, Vu HT, Powe NR, Nelson C, Ford DE. Race, gender, and partnership in the patient-physician relationship. JAMA 1999;282: 5839.
  • 165
    Sox H. Medical decision making. Boston: Butterworths; 1988.
  • 166
    Parsons T. The social system. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press; 1951.
  • 167
    Eisenberg JM. Sociologic influences on decision-making by clinicians. Ann Intern Med 1979;90: 95764.
  • 168
    Smedley B, Stith A, Nelson A. Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2003.
  • 169
    Clark J, Potter D, McKinlay J. Bringing social structure back into clinical decision making. Soc Sci Med 1991;32: 85366.
  • 170
    Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. Acute low back problems in adults. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service Agency for Health Care Policy and Research AHCPR; 1994.
  • 171
    Harwood KJ, Nordin M, Heibert R, Weiser S, Brisson PM, Skovron ML, Lewis S. Low back pain assessment training of industry-based physicians. J Rehabil Res Dev 1997;34: 37182.
  • 172
    Tait RC, Chibnall JT. Physician judgments of chronic pain patients. Soc Sci Med 1997;45: 1199205.
  • 173
    Grossman SA, Sheidler VR, Swedeen K, Mucenski J, Piantadosi S. Correlation of patient and caregiver ratings of cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 1991;6: 537.
  • 174
    Zalon ML. Nurses’ assessment of postoperative patients’ pain. Pain 1993;54: 32934.
  • 175
    Chibnall JT, Tait RC, Ross LR. The effects of medical evidence and pain intensity on medical student judgments of chronic pain patients. J Behav Med 1997;20: 25771.
  • 176
    Tait RC, Chibnall JT. Attitude profiles and clinical status in patients with chronic pain. Pain 1998;78: 4957.
  • 177
    Von Roenn JH, Cleeland CS, Gonin R, Hatfield AK, Pandya KJ. Physician attitudes and practice in cancer pain management: A survey from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Ann Intern Med 1993;119: 1216.
  • 178
    Weisse CS, Sorum PC, Sanders KN, Syat BL. Do gender and race affect decisions about pain management? J Gen Intern Med 2001;16: 2117.
  • 179
    Zuvekas SH, Taliaferro GS. Pathways to access: Health insurance, the health care delivery system, and racial/ethnic disparities, 1996–1999. Health Aff (Millwood) 2003;22: 13953.
  • 180
    Virnig BA, Lurie N, Huang Z, Musgrave D, McBean AM, Dowd B. Racial variation in quality of care among Medicare + Choice enrollees. Health Aff (Millwood) 2002;21: 22430.
  • 181
    Weinick RM, Zuvekas SH, Drilea S. Access to health care—Sources and barriers. Pub. No. 98-0001. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 1996.
  • 182
    Payne R, Medina E, Hampton JW. Quality of life concerns in patients with breast cancer: Evidence for disparity of outcomes and experiences in pain management and palliative care among African-American women. Cancer 2003;97(suppl): 3117.