Summary: We sought to examine interictal psychoses based on the international epilepsy classification and DSM IV criteria, with special attention paid to epilepsy types as well as to subcategories of psychoses. One hundred thirty-two outpatients were studied, each with definite evidence of both epilepsy and interictal psychosis clearly demarcated from postictal psychosis. We compared them with 2,773 other epilepsy outpatients as a control. Risk factors for psychosis were examined within the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) group and the more extended group of symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. Further, nuclear schizophrenia and other nonschizophrenic psychotic disorders were compared. We confirmed a close correlation between TLE and interictal psychoses. Within the TLE group, only early epilepsy onset and a history of prolonged febrile convulsions were revealed to be significantly associated with interictal psychosis. Within the symptomatic localization-related epilepsy group, such parameters as complex partial seizures, autonomic aura, and temporal EEG foci were closely associated with psychoses. There was also a significant difference between groups as to ictal fear and secondary generalization. Whereas patients with early psychosis onset and a low intelligence quotient were overrepresented in the nuclear schizophrenia group, drug-induced psychosis and alternative psychosis were underrepresented. TLE proved to be preferentially associated with interictal psychoses. Within the TLE group, medial TLE in particular was found to be more closely associated with psychosis. Our data support the original postulation of Landolt, stating that alternative or drug-induced psychoses constitute a definite subgroup of interictal psychoses, which are different from chronic epileptic psychoses that simulate schizophrenia.