• 1
    Silverman JA. Multidrug-resistance transporters. Pharm Biotech 1999;12: 353.
  • 2
    Van der Heyden S, Gheuens E, De Bruijn E, et al. P-glycoprotein: clinical significance and methods of analysis. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 1995;32: 221.
  • 3
    Cordon-Cardo C, O'Brien JP, Casals D, et al. Multidrug-resistance gene (P-glycoprotein) is expressed by endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989;86: 695.
  • 4
    Schinkel AH, Wagenaar E, Mol CAAM, et al. P-glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier of mice influences the brain penetration and pharmacological activity of many drugs. J Clin Invest 1996;97: 2517.
  • 5
    Schinkel AH. P-Glycoprotein, a gatekeeper in the blood-brain barrier. Adv Drug Deliv Res 1999;36: 179.
  • 6
    Sisodiya SM, Lin W-R, Harding BN, et al. Drug resistance in epilepsy: expression of drug resistance proteins in common causes of refractory epilepsy. Brain 2002;125: 22.
  • 7
    Tishler DM, Weinberg KI, Hinton DR, et al. MDR1 gene expression in brain of patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia 1995;36: 1.
  • 8
    D'Giano C, Sevlever G, Lazarowski A, et al. Expression of P-glycoprotein and related proteins in brain of patients with refractory temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE). Epilepsia 1997;38(suppl 8):87.
  • 9
    Lazarowski A, Sevlever G, Taratuto A, et al. Tuberous sclerosis associated with MDR1 gene expression and drug-resistant epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol 1999;21: 731.
  • 10
    Sisodiya SM, Heffernan J, Squier MV. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein in malformations of cortical development. Neuroreport 1999;10: 3437.
  • 11
    Dombrowski SM, Desai SY, Marroni M, et al. Overexpression of multiple drug resistance genes in endothelial cells from patients with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia 2001;42: 1501.
  • 12
    Potschka H, Löscher W. In vivo evidence for P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of phenytoin at the blood-brain barrier of rats. Epilepsia 2001;42: 1231.
  • 13
    Potschka H, Fedrowitz M, Löscher W. P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein are involved in the regulation of extracellular levels of the major antiepileptic drug carbamazepine in the brain. Neuroreport 2001;12: 3557.
  • 14
    Sills GJ, Kwan P, De Lange ECM, et al. P-glycoprotein mediated antiepileptic drug transport: a role in refractory epilepsy? Epilepsia 2001;42(suppl 7):83.
  • 15
    Ling V. Multidrug resistance: molecular mechanisms and clinical relevance. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1997;40(suppl):S3.
  • 16
    Gottesman MM, Hrycyna CA, Schoenlein PV, et al. Genetic analysis of the multidrug transporter. Annu Rev Genet 1995;29: 607.
  • 17
    Glowinski J, Iversen LL. Regional studies of catecholamines in rat brain, 1: the disposition of [3H]norepinephrine, [3H]dopamine and [3H]DOPA in various regions of the brain. J Neurochem 1966;13: 655.
  • 18
    Zhang F, Riley J, Gant TW. Use of internally controlled reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for absolute quantitation of individual multidrug resistant gene transcripts in tissue samples. Electrophoresis 1996;17: 255.
  • 19
    Kwan P, Brodie MJ. Early identification of refractory epilepsy. N Engl J Med 2000;342: 314.
  • 20
    Brodie MJ, French JA. Management of epilepsy in adolescents and adults. Lancet 2000;356: 323.
  • 21
    Fardel O, Lecureur V, Guillouzo A. The P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter. Gen Pharmacol 1996;27: 1283.
  • 22
    Chaudhary PM, Roninson IB. Induction of multidrug resistance in human cells by transient exposure to different chemotherapeutic drugs. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85: 632.
  • 23
    Silverman JA, Thorgeirsson SS. Regulation and function of the multidrug resistance genes in liver. Prog Liver Dis 1995;13: 101.
  • 24
    Gottesman MM, Pastan I. Biochemistry of multidrug resistance mediated by the multidrug transporter. Annu Rev Biochem 1993;62: 385.
  • 25
    Samoto K, Ikezaki K, Yokoyama N, et al. P-glycoprotein expression in brain capillary endothelial cells after focal ischemia in rat. Acta Neurochir 1994;60: 257.
  • 26
    Barrand MA, Robertson KJ, Von Weikersthal SF. Comparisons of P-glycoprotein expression in isolated rat brain microvessels and in primary cultures of endothelial cells derived from microvasculature of rat brain, epididymal fat pad and from aorta. FEBS Lett 1995;374: 179.
  • 27
    Burt RK, Thorgeirsson SS. Coinduction of MDR-1 multidrug-resistance and cytochrome P-450 genes in rat liver by xenobiotics. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988;80: 1383.
  • 28
    Gant TW, Silverman JA, Bisgaard HC, et al. Regulation of 2-acetylaminofluorene- and 3-methylcholanthrene-mediated induction of multidrug resistance and cytochrome P450IA gene family expression in primary hepatocyte cultures and rat liver. Mol Carcinogen 1991;4: 499.
  • 29
    Chin K-V, Tanaka S, Darlington G, et al. Heat shock and arsenite increase expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene in human renal carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem 1990;265: 221.
  • 30
    Thorgeirsson SS, Huber BE, Sorrell S, et al. Expression of the multidrug-resistance gene in hepatocarcinogenesis and regenerating rat liver. Science 1987;236: 1120.
  • 31
    Morrow CS, Nakagawa M, Goldsmith ME, et al. Reversible transcriptional activation of MDR1 by sodium butyrate treatment of human colon cancer cells. J Biol Chem 1994;269: 10739.
  • 32
    Chaudhary PM, Roninson IB. Activation of MDR1 (P-glycoprotein) gene expression in human cells by protein kinase-C agonists. Oncol Res 1992;4: 281.
  • 33
    Felix RA, Barrand MA. P-glycoprotein expression in rat brain endothelial cells: evidence for regulation by transient oxidative stress. J Neurochem 2002;80: 64.
  • 34
    Muller C, Goubin F, Ferrandis E, et al. Evidence for transcriptional control of human MDR1 gene expression by verapamil in multidrug-resistant leukemic cells. Mol Pharmacol 1995;47: 51.
  • 35
    Shehab S, Coffey P, Dean P, et al. Regional expression of fos-like immunoreactivity following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. Exp Neurol 1992;118: 261.
  • 36
    Maggio R, Lanaud P, Grayson DR, et al. Expression of c-fos mRNA following seizures evoked from an epileptogenic site in the deep prepiriform cortex: regional distribution in brain as shown by in situ hybridization. Exp Neurol 1993;119: 11.
  • 37
    Williams MB, Jope RS. Distinctive rat brain immediate early gene responses to seizures induced by lithium plus pilocarpine. Mol Brain Res 1994;25: 80.
  • 38
    Ebert U, Löscher W. Strong induction of c-fos in the piriform cortex during focal seizures evoked from different limbic brain sites. Brain Res 1995;671: 338.
  • 39
    Suzukawa J, Omori K, Okugawa G, et al. Long-lasting c-fos and NGF mRNA expressions and loss of perikaryal parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the development of epileptogenesis after ethacrynic acid-induced seizure. Brain Res 1999;834: 89.
  • 40
    Gomez-Pinilla F, Van der Wal EA, Cotman CW. Possible coordinated gene expressions for FGF receptor, FGF-5, and FGF-2 following seizures. Exp Neurol 1995;133: 164.
  • 41
    Kokaia Z, Kelly ME, Elmer E, et al. Seizure-induced differential expression of messenger RNAs for neurotrophins and their receptors in genetically fast and slow kindling rats. Neuroscience 1996;75: 197.
  • 42
    Little LE, Tocco G, Baudry M, et al. Induction of glucose-regulated protein (glucose-regulated protein 78/BiP and glucose-regulated protein 94) and heat shock protein 70 transcripts in the immature rat brain following status epilepticus. Neuroscience 1996;75: 209.
  • 43
    Schwarzer C, Sperk G, Samanin R, et al. Neuropeptides immunoreactivity and their mRNA expression in kindling: functional implications for limbic epileptogenesis. Brain Res Rev 1996;22: 27.
  • 44
    Plata-Salaman CR, Ilyin SE, Turrin NP, et al. Kindling modulates the IL-1beta system, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, and neuropeptide mRNAs in specific brain regions. Mol Brain Res 2000;75: 248.
  • 45
    Ni H, Lu Z-H, Wang S-B, et al. A transient increase in CCK mRNA levels in hippocampus following audiogenic convulsions in audiogenic seizure-prone rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2000;21: 425.
  • 46
    Eells JB, Clough RW, Browning RA, et al. Fos in locus coeruleus neurons following audiogenic seizure in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat: comparison to electroshock and pentylenetetrazol seizure models. Neurosci Lett 1997;233: 21.
  • 47
    Ribak CE, Manio AL, Navetta MS, et al. In situ hybridization for c-fos mRNA reveals the involvement of the superior colliculus in the propagation of seizure activity in genetically epilepsy-prone rats. Epilepsy Res 1997;26: 397.
  • 48
    Ryu JR, Shin CY, Park KH, et al. Effect of repeated seizure experiences on tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivities in the brain of genetically epilepsy-prone rats. Brain Res Bull 2000;53: 777.
  • 49
    Rizzi M, Guiso G, Mule F, et al. Induction of MDR-1 by limbic seizures in mice: relevance for drug resistance in epilepsy. Soc Neurosci Abs 2001;27: 553.2.
  • 50
    Zhang L, Ong WY, Lee T. Induction of P-glycoprotein expression in astrocytes following intracerebroventricular kainate injections. Exp Brain Res 1999;126: 509.
  • 51
    Faingold CL. The genetically epilepsy-prone rat. Gen Pharmacol 1998;19: 331.
  • 52
    Faingold CL, Millan MH, Boersma CA, et al. Excitant amino acids and audiogenic seizures in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat, I: afferent seizure initiation pathway. Exp Neurol 1988;99: 678.
  • 53
    Millan MH, Meldrum BS, Boersma CA, et al. Excitant amino acids and audiogenic seizures in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat, II: Efferent seizure propagating pathway. Exp Neurol 1988;99: 687.
  • 54
    Kwan P, Sills GJ, Butler E, et al. Regional expression of multidrug resistance genes in naïve rat brain. Neurosci Lett (submitted).
  • 55
    Regina A, Koman A, Piciotti M, et al. Mrp1 multidrug resistance-associated protein and P-glycoprotein expression in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells. J Neurochem 1998;71: 705.
  • 56
    Schinkel AH, Mayer U, Wagenaar E, et al. Normal viability and altered pharmacokinetics in mice lacking mdr1-type (drug-transporting) P-glycoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997;94: 4028.
  • 57
    Cornford EM, Oldendorf WH. Epilepsy and the blood-brain barrier. Adv Neurol 1986;44: 787.
  • 58
    Cornford EM. Epilepsy and the blood brain barrier: endothelial cell responses to seizures. Adv Neurol 1999;79: 845.
  • 59
    Kasantikul V, Brown WJ, Oldendorf WH, et al. Ultrastructural parameters of limbic microvasculature in human psychomotor epilepsy. Clin Neuropathol 1983;2: 171.
  • 60
    Liwnicz BH, Leach JL, Yeh MS, et al. Pericyte degeneration and thickening of basement membrane of cerebral microvessels in complex partial seizures: electron microscopic study of surgically removed tissues. Neurosurgery 1990;26: 409.
  • 61
    Thorgeirsson SS, Gant TW, Silverman JA. Transcriptional regulation of multidrug resistance gene expression. Cancer Treat Res 1994;73: 57.