• 1
    Neville BG. Reversible disability associated with epilepsy. Brain Dev 1999;21: 825.
  • 2
    Gillberg C. Developmental and neuropsychiatric syndromes of childhood. In: AicardiJ, ed. Diseases of the nervous system in childhood. London : MacKeith Press, 1998: 81567.
  • 3
    Taylor DC, Neville BG, Cross JH. Autistic spectrum disorders in childhood epilepsy surgery candidates. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999;8: 18992.
  • 4
    Lindsay J, Ounsted C, Richards P. Long-term outcome in children with temporal lobe seizures, III: psychiatric aspects in childhood and adult life. Dev Med Child Neurol 1979;21: 6306.
  • 5
    Dunn DW, Austin JK, Harezlak J, et al. ADHD and epilepsy in childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol 2003;45: 504.
  • 6
    Neville BG, Boyd SG. Selective epileptic gait disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;58: 3713.
  • 7
    Rodgers J, Horrocks J, Britton PG, et al. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia. Arch Dis Child 1999;80: 31823.
  • 8
    Dinklaje D, Barkley RA. Disorders of attention in children. In: SegalowitzSJ, RapenI, eds. Handbook of neuropsychology. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science, 1992: 279307.
  • 9
    Mirsky AF. Disorders of attention: a neuropsychological perspective. In: LyonRG, KrasnegorNA, eds. Attention, memory and executive function. Baltimore : Paul H. Brookes, 1996: 7196.
  • 10
    Perry RJ, Hodges JR. Attention and executive deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a critical review. Brain 1999;122: 383404.
  • 11
    Estevez-Gonzalez A, Garcia-Sanchez C, Junque C. Atención: una función cerebral compleja. Rev Neurol 1997;25: 198997.
  • 12
    Ruiz-Vargas JM. Atención y control: modelos y problemas para una integración teórica. Rev Psicol Gral Aplic 1993;46: 12537.
  • 13
    Pardo JV, Fox PT, Raichle ME. Localization of a human system for sustained attention by positron emission tomography. Nature 1991;349: 614.
  • 14
    Coull JT, Frith CD, Frackowiak RS, et al. A fronto-parietal network for rapid visual information processing: a PET study of sustained attention and working memory. Neuropsychologia 1996;34: 108595.
  • 15
    Pardo JV, Pardo PJ, Janer KW, et al. The anterior cingulate cortex mediates processing selection in the Stroop attentional conflict paradigm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990;87: 2569.
  • 16
    Bench CJ, Frith CD, Grasby PM, et al. Investigations of the functional anatomy of attention using the Stroop test. Neuropsychologia 1993;31: 90722.
  • 17
    D'Esposito M, Detre JA, Alsop DC, et al. The neural basis of the central executive system of working memory. Nature 1995;378: 27981.
  • 18
    Posner MI, Petersen SE. The attention system of the human brain. Annu Rev Neurosci 1990;13: 2542.
  • 19
    Mesulam MM. A cortical network for directed attention and unilateral neglect. Ann Neurol 1981;10: 30925.
  • 20
    Mesulam MM. Large-scale neurocognitive networks and distributed processing for attention, language, and memory. Ann Neurol 1990;28: 597613.
  • 21
    Rutter M, Graham P, Yule W. A neuropsychiatric study in childhood. London : Spastic International Medical Publications, 1970.
  • 22
    Stores G. Reading skills in children with generalised or focal epilepsy attending normal school. Dev Med Child Neurol 1976;18: 70516.
  • 23
    Seidenberg M, Beck N, Geisser M, et al. Academic achievement of children with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1986;27: 75359.
  • 24
    Staden U, Isaacs E, Boyd SG, et al. Language dysfunction in children with rolandic epilepsy. Neuropediatrics 1998;29: 2428.
  • 25
    Gülgönen S, Demirbilek V, Korkmaz B, et al. Neuropsychological functions in idiopathic occipital lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 2000;41: 40511.
  • 26
    Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Faraone SV, et al. Toward defining a neuropsychology of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: performance of children and adolescents from a large clinically referred sample. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997;65: 15060.
  • 27
    Bornstein RA, Drake MEJ, Pakalnis A. WAIS-R factor structure in epileptic patients. Epilepsia 1988;29: 148.
  • 28
    Stores G. Studies of attention and seizure disorders. Dev Med Child Neurol 1973;15: 37682.
  • 29
    Stores G. School-children with epilepsy at risk for learning and behaviour problems. Dev Med Child Neurol 1978;20: 5028.
  • 30
    Stores G, Hart J, Piran N. Inattentiveness in schoolchildren with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1978;19: 16975.
  • 31
    Stores G. Behaviour disturbance and type of epilepsy in children attending ordinary school. In: PenryJK, ed. Epilepsy: proceedings of the eighth international symposium. New York : Raven Press, 1977: 2459.
  • 32
    Bennett-Levy J, Stores G. The nature of cognitive dysfunction in school-children with epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 1984;99: 7982.
  • 33
    Oostrom KJ, Schouten A, Kruitwagen CL, et al. Attention deficits are not characteristic of schoolchildren with newly diagnosed idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy. Epilepsia 2002;43: 30110.
  • 34
    D'Alessandro P, Piccirilli M, Tiacci C, et al. Neuropsychological features of benign partial epilepsy in children. Ital J Neurol Sci 1990;11: 2659.
  • 35
    Piccirilli M, D'Alessandro P, Sciarma T, et al. Attention problems in epilepsy: possible significance of the epileptogenic focus. Epilepsia 1994;35: 10916.
  • 36
    Baglietto MG, Battaglia FM, Nobili L, et al. Neuropsychological disorders related to interictal epileptic discharges during sleep in benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal or rolandic spikes. Dev Med Child Neurol 2001;43: 40712.
  • 37
    Deonna TW. Acquired epileptiform aphasia in children (Landau-Kleffner syndrome). J Clin Neurophysiol 1991;8: 28898.
  • 38
    Aicardi J. Epilepsy in children. 2nd ed. New York : Raven Press, 1994.
  • 39
    Croona C, Kihlgren M, Lundberg S, et al. Neuropsychological findings in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. Dev Med Child Neurol 1999;41: 8138.
  • 40
    Schoenfeld J, Seidenberg M, Woodard A, et al. Neuropsychological and behavioral status of children with complex partial seizures. Dev Med Child Neurol 1999;41: 72431.
  • 41
    Semrud-Clikeman M, Wical B. Components of attention in children with complex partial seizures with and without ADHD. Epilepsia 1999;40: 2115.
  • 42
    Cendes F, Ragazzo PC, Da Costa V, et al. Corpus callosotomy in treatment of medically resistant epilepsy: preliminary results in a pediatric population. Epilepsia 1993;34: 9107.
  • 43
    Yang TF, Wong TT, Kwan SY, et al. Quality of life and life satisfaction in families after a child has undergone corpus callostomy. Epilepsia 1996;37: 7680.
  • 44
    Wilson PJ. Cerebral hemispherectomy for infantile hemiplegia: a report of 50 cases. Brain 1970;93: 14780.
  • 45
    Lendt M, Helmstaedter C, Elger CE. Pre- and postoperative neuropsychological profiles in children and adolescents with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 1999;40: 154350.
  • 46
    Billingsley RL, Smith ML, McAndrews MP. Material-specific and non-specific attention deficits in children and adolescents following temporal-lobe surgery. Neuropsychologia 2000;38: 292303.
  • 47
    Binnie CD, Channon S, Marston D. Learning disabilities in epilepsy: neurophysiological aspects. Epilepsia 1990;31(suppl 4):S28.
  • 48
    Dam M. Children with epilepsy: the effect of seizures, syndromes, and etiological factors on cognitive functioning. Epilepsia 1990;31(suppl 4):S269.
  • 49
    Bourgeois BF, Prensky AL, Palkes HS, et al. Intelligence in epilepsy: a prospective study in children. Ann Neurol 1983;14: 43844.
  • 50
    Besag FMC. Epilepsy, education and the role of of mental handicap. Baillieres Clin Paediatr 1994;2: 56183.
  • 51
    Rodin EA, Schmaltz S, Twitty G. Intellectual functions of patients with childhood-onset epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1986;28: 2533.
  • 52
    O'Leary DS, Lovell MR, Sackellares JC, et al. Effects of age of onset of partial and generalized seizures on neuropsychological performance in children. J Nerv Ment Dis 1983;171: 6249.
  • 53
    Dodrill CB. The relationship between neuropsychological abilities to seizure factors and to surgery for epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 1992;86(suppl):10710.
  • 54
    Vasconcellos E, Wyllie E, Sullivan S, et al. Mental retardation in pediatric candidates for epilepsy surgery: the role of early seizure onset. Epilepsia 2001;42: 26874.
  • 55
    Dodrill CB. Correlates of generalized tonic-clonic seizures with intellectual, neuropsychological, emotional, and social function in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1986;27: 399411.
  • 56
    Vermeulen J, Aldenkamp AP. Cognitive side-effects of chronic antiepileptic drug treatment: a review of 25 years of research. Epilepsy Res 1995;22: 6595.
  • 57
    Ludgate J, Keating J, O'Dwyer R, et al. An improvement in cognitive function following polypharmacy reduction in a group of epileptic patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1985;71: 44852.
  • 58
    Aman MG, Werry JS, Paxton JW, et al. Effects of carbamazepine on psychomotor performance in children as a function of drug concentration, seizure type, and time of medication. Epilepsia 1990;31: 5160.
  • 59
    Forsythe I, Butler R, Berg I, et al. Cognitive impairment in new cases of epilepsy randomly assigned to carbamazepine, phenytoin and sodium valproate. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991;33: 52434.
  • 60
    Aldenkamp AP, Alpherts WC, Blennow G, et al. Withdrawal of antiepileptic medication in children: effects on cognitive function: the multicentric Holmfrid study. Neurology 1993;43: 4150.
  • 61
    Wolf SM, Forsythe A. Behavior disturbance, phenobarbital, and febrile seizures. Pediatrics 1978;61: 72831.
  • 62
    Camfield CS, Chaplin S, Doyle AB, et al. Side effects of phenobarbital in toddlers; behavioral and cognitive aspects. J Pediatr 1979;95: 3615.
  • 63
    Wolf SM, Forsythe A, Stunden AA, et al. Long-term effect of phenobarbital on cognitive function in children with febrile convulsions. Pediatrics 1981;68: 8203.
  • 64
    Farwell JR, Lee YJ, Hirtz DG, et al. Phenobarbital for febrile seizures: effects on intelligence and on seizure recurrence. N Engl J Med 1990;322: 3649.
  • 65
    Sulzbacher S, Farwell JR, Temkin N, et al. Late cognitive effects of early treatment with phenobarbital. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1999;38: 38794.
  • 66
    Knudsen FU, Vestermark S. Prophylactic diazepam or phenobarbitone in febrile convulsions: a prospective controlled study. Arch Dis Child 1978;53: 6603.
  • 67
    Lee K, Melchior JC. Sodium valproate versus phenobarbital in the prophylactic treatment of febrile convulsions in childhood. Eur J Pediatr 1981;137: 1513.
  • 68
    Chen YJ, Kang WM, So WC. Comparison of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive function in newly diagnosed epileptic children: a psychometric and neurophysiological study. Epilepsia 1996;37: 816.
  • 69
    Vining EP, Mellitis ED, Dorsen MM, et al. Psychologic and behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs in children: a double-blind comparison between phenobarbital and valproic acid. Pediatrics 1987;80: 16574.
  • 70
    Riva D, Devoti M. Discontinuation of phenobarbital in children: effects on neurocognitive behavior. Pediatr Neurol 1996;14: 3640.
  • 71
    Pal DK, Das T, Chaudhury G, et al. Randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability of phenobarbital for childhood epilepsy in rural India. Lancet 1998;351: 1923.
  • 72
    De Silva M, MacArdle B, McGowan M, et al. Randomised comparative monotherapy trial of phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or sodium valproate for newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy. Lancet 1996;347: 70913.
  • 73
    Calandre EP, Dominguez-Granados R, Gomez-Rubio M, et al. Cognitive effects of long-term treatment with phenobarbital and valproic acid in school children. Acta Neurol Scand 1990;81: 5046.
  • 74
    Narbona J, Artieda J. Effet du methylphenidate sur la composante P-300 des potentials evoques tardifs dans le deficit d'attention. ANAE 1994;6: 1268.
  • 75
    Mohamed K, Appleton R, Rosenbloom L. Efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in childhood and adolescent epilepsy: a clinical experience. Seizure 2000;9: 13741.
  • 76
    Martin R, Kuzniecky R, Ho S, et al. Cognitive effects of topiramate, gabapentin, and lamotrigine in healthy young adults. Neurology 1999;52: 3217.
  • 77
    Leach JP, Girvan J, Paul A, et al. Gabapentin and cognition: a double blind, dose ranging, placebo controlled study in refractory epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;62: 3726.
  • 78
    Meador KJ, Baker GA. Behavioral and cognitive effects of lamotrigine. J Child Neurol 1997;12(suppl 1):S447.
  • 79
    Lethel V, Chabrol B, Livet MO, et al. [Lamotrigine therapy in children: retrospective study of 32 children]. Arch Pediatr 2000;7: 23442.
  • 80
    Uvebrant P, Bauziene R. Intractable epilepsy in children: the efficacy of lamotrigine treatment, including non–seizure-related benefits. Neuropediatrics 1994;25: 2849.
  • 81
    Bolton PF, Park RJ, Higgins JN, et al. Neuro-epileptic determinants of autism spectrum disorders in tuberous sclerosis complex. Brain 2002;125: 124755.
  • 82
    Aarts JH, Binnie CD, Smit AM, et al. Selective cognitive impairment during focal and generalized epileptiform EEG activity. Brain 1984;107: 293308.
  • 83
    Siebelink BM, Bakker DJ, Binnie CD, et al. Psychological effects of subclinical epileptiform EEG discharges in children, II: general intelligence tests. Epilepsy Res 1988;2: 11721.
  • 84
    Kasteleijn-Nolst TD, Bakker DJ, Binnie CD, et al. Psychological effects of subclinical epileptiform EEG discharges, I: scholastic skills. Epilepsy Res 1988;2: 1116.
  • 85
    Aldenkamp AP, Overweg J, Gutter T, et al. Effect of epilepsy, seizures and epileptiform EEG discharges on cognitive function. Acta Neurol Scand 1996;93: 2539.