• 1
    Cooper IS, Amin I, Riklan M, et al. Chronic cerebellar stimulation in epilepsy. Arch Neurol 1976;33: 55970.
  • 2
    Van Buren JM, Wood JH, Oakley J, et al. Preliminary evaluation of cerebellar stimulation by double-blind stimulation and biological criteria in the treatment of epilepsy. J Neurosurg 1978;48: 407.
  • 3
    Velasco F, Velasco M, Velasco AL, et al. Effect of chronic electrical stimulation of the centromedian thalamic nuclei on various intractable seizure patterns, I: clinical seizures and paroxysmal EEG activity. Epilepsia 1993;34: 105264.
  • 4
    Velasco F, Velasco M, Velasco AL, et al. Electrical stimulation of the centromedian thalamic nucleus in control of seizures: long-term studies. Epilepsia 1995;36: 6371.
  • 5
    Fisher RS, Uematsu S, Krauss GL, et al. Placebo-controlled pilot study of centromedian thalamic stimulation in treatment of intractable seizures. Epilepsia 1992;33: 84151.
  • 6
    Velasco F, Velasco M, Jimenez F, et al. Predictors in the treatment of difficult-to-control seizures by electrical stimulation of the centromedian thalamic nucleus. Neurosurgery 2000;47: 295304.
  • 7
    Benabid AL, Koudsie A, Pollak P, et al. Future prospects of brain stimulation. Neurol Res 2000;22: 23746.
  • 8
    Benabid AL, Minotti L, Koudsie A, et al. Antiepileptic effects of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (corpus luysi) in a case of medically intractable epilepsy caused by focal dysplasia: a 30-month follow-up: technical case report. Neurosurgery 2002;50: 138592.
  • 9
    Loddenkemper T, Pan A, Neme S, et al. Deep brain stimulation in epilepsy. J Clin Neurophysiol 2001;18: 51432.
  • 10
    Hodaie M, Wennberg RA, Dostrovsky JO, et al. Chronic anterior thalamus stimulation for intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia 2002;43: 6038.
  • 11
    Mirski MA, Fisher RS. Electrical stimulation of the mammillary nuclei increases seizure threshold to pentylenetetrazol in rats. Epilepsia 1994;35: 130916.
  • 12
    Mirski MA, Rossell LA, Terry JB, et al. Anticonvulsant effect of anterior thalamic high frequency electrical stimulation in the rat. Epilepsy Res 1997;28: 89100.
  • 13
    McLachlan RS. Vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy: a review. J Clin Neurophysiol 1997;14: 35868.
  • 14
    Morris GL, Mueller WM. Long term treatment with vagus nerve stimulation in patients with refractory epilepsy. Neurology 1999;53: 17315.
  • 15
    DeGiorgio CM, Schachter SC, Handforth A, et al. Prospective long-term study of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of refractory seizures. Epilepsia 2000;41: 1195200.
  • 16
    Sunderam S, Osorio I, Watkins JF III, Wilkinson SB, et al. Vagal and sciatic nerve stimulation have complex, time-dependent effects on chemically induced seizures: a controlled study. Brain Res 2001;918: 606.
  • 17
    Fanselow EE, Reid AP, Nicolelis MA. Reduction of pentyl-enetetrazole-induced seizure activity in awake rats by seizure-triggered trigeminal nerve stimulation. J Neurosci 2000;20: 81608.
  • 18
    Patwardhan RV, Tubbs RS, Killingsworth C, et al. Ninth cranial nerve stimulation for epilepsy control, 1: efficacy in an animal model. Pediatr Neurosurg 2002;36: 23643.
  • 19
    Eder HG, Stein A, Fisher RS. Interictal and ictal activity in the rat cobalt/pilocarpine model of epilepsy decreased by local perfusion of diazepam. Epilepsy Res 1997;29: 1724.
  • 20
    Eder HG, Jones DB, Fisher RS. Local perfusion of diazepam attenuates interictal and ictal events in the bicuculline model of epilepsy in rats. Epilepsia 1997;38: 51621.
  • 21
    Yang XF, Rothman SM. Focal cooling rapidly terminates experimental neocortical seizures. Ann Neurol 2001;49: 7216.
  • 22
    Yang XF, Duffy DW, Morley RE, et al. Neocortical seizure termination by focal cooling: temperature dependence and automated seizure detection. Epilepsia 2002;43: 2405.
  • 23
    Bragdon AC, Kojima H, Wilson WA. Suppression of interictal bursting in hippocampus unleashes seizures in entorhinal cortex: a proepileptic effect of lowering [K+]o and raising [Ca2+]o. Brain Res 1992;590: 12835.
  • 24
    Barbarosie M, Avoli M. CA3-driven hippocampal-entorhinal loop controls rather than sustains in vitro limbic seizures. J Neurosci 1997;17: 930814.
  • 25
    Jerger K, Schiff SJ. Periodic pacing an in vitro epileptic focus. J Neurophysiol 1995;73: 8769.
  • 26
    Weiss SR, Li XL, Rosen JB, et al. Quenching: inhibition of development and expression of amygdala kindled seizures with low frequency stimulation. Neuroreport 1995;6: 21716.
  • 27
    Weiss SRB, Eidsath A, Li XL, et al. Quenching revisited: low level direct current inhibits amygdala-kindled seizures. Exp Neurol 1998;154: 18592.
  • 28
    Velasco AL, Velasco M, Velasco G, et al. Subacute and chronic electrical stimulation of the hippocampus on intractable temporal lobe seizure: preliminary report. Arch Med Res 2000;31: 31628.
  • 29
    Velasco M, Velasco G, Velasco AL, et al. Subacute electrical stimulation of the hippocampus blocks intractable temporal lobe seizures and paroxysmal EEG activities. Epilepsia 2000;41: 15869.
  • 30
    Lesser RP, Kim SH, Beyderman L, et al. Brief bursts of pulse stimulation terminate afterdischarges caused by cortical stimulation. Neurology 1999;53: 207381.
  • 31
    Motamedi GK, Lesser RP, Miglioretti DL, et al. Optimizing parameters for terminating cortical afterdischarges with pulse stimulation. Epilepsia (in press).
  • 32
    Agnew WF, Yuen TGH, McCreery DB. Morphological changes after prolonged electrical stimulation of the cat's cortex at defined charge densities. Exp Neurol 1983;79: 397411.
  • 33
    Gordon B, Lesser RP, Rance NE, et al. Parameters for direct cortical electrical stimulation in the human: histopathological confirmation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990;75: 3717.
  • 34
    Bikson M, Lian J, Hahn PJ, et al. Suppression of epileptiform activity by high frequency sinusoidal fields in rat hippocampal slices. J Physiol 2001;531: 18191.
  • 35
    Denney D, Brookhart JM. The effects of applied polarization on evoked electro-cortical waves in the cat. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1962;14: 88597.
  • 36
    Purpura DP, McMurtry JG. Intracellular activities and evoked potential changes during polarization of motor cortex. J Neurophysiol 1965;28: 16685.
  • 37
    Purpura DP, Malliani A. Spike generation and propagation initiated in dendrites by transhippocampal polarization. Brain Res 1966;1: 4036.
  • 38
    Jefferys JGR. Influence of electric fields on the excitability of granule cells in guinea-pig hippocampal slices. J Physiol 1981;319: 14352.
  • 39
    Chan CY, Nicholson C. Modulation by applied electric fields of Purkinje and stellate cell activity in the isolated turtle cerebellum. J Physiol 1986;371: 89114.
  • 40
    Chan CY, Houndsgaard J, Nicholson C. Effects of electric fields on transmembrane potential and excitability of turtle cerebellar Purkinje cells in vitro. J Physiol 1988;402: 75171.
  • 41
    Tranchina D, Nicholson, C. A model for the polarization on neurons by extrinsically applied electric fields. Biophys J 1986;50: 113959.
  • 42
    Gluckman BJ, Neel EJ, Netoff TI, et al. Electric field suppression of epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices. J Neurophysiol 1996;76: 42025.
  • 43
    Ghai RS, Bikson M, Durand DM. Effects of applied electric fields on low-calcium epileptiform activity in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. J Neurophysiol 2000;84: 27480.
  • 44
    Gluckman BJ, Nguyen H, Weinstein SL, et al. Adaptive electric field suppression of epileptic seizures. J Neurosci 2001;21: 590600.
  • 45
    Traub RD, Miles R. Neuronal networks of the hippocampus. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • 46
    Paxinos G, Watson C. The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates. 3rd ed. San Diego : Academic Press, 1997.
  • 47
    Fisher AC. Electrode dynamics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • 48
    Le Van Quyen M, Martinerie J, Navarro V, et al. Characterizing neurodynamic changes before seizures. J Clin Neurophysiol 2001;18: 191209.
  • 49
    Lehnertz K, Andrezejak RG, Arnhold J, et al. Nonlinear EEG analysis in epilepsy: its possible use for interictal focus localization, seizure anticipation and prevention. J Clin Neurophysiol 2001;18: 20923.
  • 50
    Litt B, Esteller R, Echauz J, et al. Epileptic seizures may begin hours in advance of clinical onset: a report of five patients. Neuron 2001;30: 5164.
  • 51
    Meyer RD, Cogan SF, Nguyen TH, et al. Electrodeposited iridium oxide for neural stimulation and recording electrodes. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2001;9: 211.
  • 52
    Weiland JD, Anderson DJ. Chronic neural stimulation with thin-film, iridium oxide electrodes. IEEE Trans BME 2000;47: 9118.
  • 53
    Babb TL, Soper HV, Lieb JP, et al. Electrophysiological studies of long term electrical stimulation of the cerebellum in monkeys. J Neurosurg 1977;47: 35365.
  • 54
    Gordon B, Lesser RP, Rance NE, et al. Parameters for direct cortical electrical stimulation in the human: histopathologic confirmation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990;75: 3717.