• 1
    Mischel PS, Nguyen LP, Vinters HV. Cerebral cortical dysplasia associated with pediatric epilepsy: review of neuropathologic features and proposal for a grading system. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1995;54: 13753.
  • 2
    Crino PB, Miyata H, Vinters HV. Neurodevelopmental disorders as a cause of seizures: neuropathologic, genetic, and mechanistic considerations. Brain Pathol 2002;12: 21233.
  • 3
    Taylor DC, Falconer MA, Bruton CJ, et al. Focal dysplasia of the cerebral cortex in epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1971;34: 36987.
  • 4
    Vinters HV, Fisher RS, Cornford ME, et al. Morphological substrates of infantile spasms: studies based on surgically resected cerebral tissue. Childs Nerv Syst 1992;8: 817.
  • 5
    Palmini A, Gambardella A, Andermann F, et al. Intrinsic epileptogenicity of human dysplastic cortex as suggested by corticography and surgical results. Ann Neurol 1995;37: 47687.
  • 6
    Mattia D, Olivier A, Avoli M. Seizure-like discharges recorded in human dysplastic neocortex maintained in vitro. Neurology 1995;45: 13915.
  • 7
    Jacobs KM, Kharazia VN, Prince DA. Mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis in cortical malformations. Epilepsy Res 1999;36: 16588.
  • 8
    Avoli M, Mattia D, Olivier A. A window on the physiopathogenesis of seizures in patients with cortical dysplasia. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002;497: 12332.
  • 9
    Swann JW, Hablitz JJ. Cellular abnormalities and synaptic plasticity in seizure disorders of the immature nervous system. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2000;6: 25867.
  • 10
    Jacobs KM, Gutnick MJ, Prince DA. Hyperexcitability in a model of cortical maldevelopment. Cereb Cortex 1996;6: 51423.
  • 11
    Najm IM, Ying Z, Babb T, et al. Epileptogenicity correlated with increased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A/B in human focal cortical dysplasia. Epilepsia 2000;41: 9716.
  • 12
    DeFazio RA, Hablitz JJ. Alterations in NMDA receptors in a rat model of cortical dysplasia. J Neurophysiol 2000;83: 31521.
  • 13
    Ying Z, Babb TL, Comair YG, et al. Induced expression of NMDAR2 proteins and differential expression of NMDAR1 splice variants in dysplastic neurons of human epileptic neocortex. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998;57: 4762.
  • 14
    Avoli M, Bernasconi A, Mattia D, et al. Epileptiform discharges in the human dysplastic neocortex: in vitro physiology and pharmacology. Ann Neurol 1999;46: 81626.
  • 15
    Hablitz JJ, DeFazio RA. Altered receptor subunit expression in rat neocortical malformations. Epilepsia 2000;41: S825.
  • 16
    Crino PB, Duhaime AC, Baltuch G, et al. Differential expression of glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunit mRNA in cortical dysplasia. Neurology 2001;56: 90613.
  • 17
    Nakanishi S. Molecular diversity of glutamate receptors and implications for brain function. Science 1992;258: 597603.
  • 18
    Pin JP, Duvoisin R. The metabotropic glutamate receptors: structure and functions. Neuropharmacology 1995;34: 126.
  • 19
    Schoepp DD, Jane DE, Monn JA. Pharmacological agents acting at subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Neuropharmacology 1999;38: 143176.
  • 20
    Wong RK, Bianchi R, Taylor GW, et al. Role of metabotropic glutamate receptors in epilepsy. Adv Neurol 1999;79: 68598.
  • 21
    Chapman AG. Glutamate receptors in epilepsy. Prog Brain Res 1998;116: 37183.
  • 22
    Tizzano JP, Griffey KI, Schoepp DD. Induction or protection of limbic seizures in mice by mGluR subtype selective agonists. Neuropharmacology 1995;34: 10637.
  • 23
    Burke JP, Hablitz JJ. Modulation of epileptiform activity by metabotropic glutamate receptors in immature rat neocortex. J Neurophysiol 1995;73: 20517.
  • 24
    Chapman AG, Nanan K, Williams M, et al. Anticonvulsant activity of two metabotropic glutamate group I antagonists selective for the mGlu5 receptor: 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), and (E)-6-methyl-2-styryl-pyridine (SIB 1893). Neuropharmacology 2000;39: 156774.
  • 25
    Greenwood RS, Fan Z, McHugh R, et al. Inhibition of hippocampal kindling by metabotropic glutamate receptor antisense oligonucleotides. Mol Cell Neurosci 2000;16: 23343.
  • 26
    Folbergrova J, Haugvicova R, Mares P. Attenuation of seizures induced by homocysteic acid in immature rats by metabotropic glutamate group II and group III receptor agonists. Brain Res 2001;908: 1209.
  • 27
    Moldrich RX, Beart PM, Jane DE, et al. Anticonvulsant activity of 3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycines in DBA/2 mice. Neuropharmacology 2001;40: 7325.
  • 28
    Moldrich RX, Jeffrey M, Talebi A, et al. Anti-epileptic activity of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists (–)-2 oxa-4-aminobicyclo(3.1.0)hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268) and (–)-2-thia-4-aminobicyclo(3.1.0)hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY389795). Neuropharmacology 2001;41: 818.
  • 29
    Merlin LR. Differential roles for mGluR1 and mGluR5 in the persistent prolongation of epileptiform bursts. J Neurophysiol 2002;87: 6215.
  • 30
    Van Veelen CW, Debets RM, Van Huffelen AC, et al. Combined use of subdural and intracerebral electrodes in preoperative evaluation of epilepsy. Neurosurgery 1990;26: 93101.
  • 31
    Engel JJ. Outcome with respect to epileptic seizures. In: EngelJEJr, ed. Surgical treatment of epilepsy. New York : Raven Press, 1987: 55371.
  • 32
    Aronica E, Catania MV, Geurts J, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors in control and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis human spinal cord: upregulation in reactive astrocytes. Neuroscience 2001;105: 50920.
  • 33
    Aronica E, Yankaya B, Jansen GH, et al. Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor protein expression in glioneuronal tumours from patients with intractable epilepsy. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2001;27: 22337.
  • 34
    Romijn HJ, Uum JF, Breedijk I, et al. Double immunolabeling of neuropeptides in the human hypothalamus as analyzed by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. J Histochem Cytochem 1999;47: 22936.
  • 35
    Khurgel M, Ivy GO. Astrocytes in kindling: relevance to epileptogenesis. Epilepsy Res 1996;26: 16375.
  • 36
    Aronica E, Van Vliet EA, Mayboroda OA, et al. Upregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR3 and mGluR5 in reactive astrocytes in a rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Eur J Neurosci 2000;12: 233344.
  • 37
    Tassi L, Colombo N, Garbelli R, et al. Focal cortical dysplasia: neuropathological subtypes, EEG, neuroimaging and surgical outcome. Brain 2002;125: 171932.
  • 38
    Ong WY, He Y, Tan KK, et al. Differential localisation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1a and the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2/3 in neurons of the human cerebral cortex. Exp Brain Res 1998;119: 36774.
  • 39
    Oka A, Takashima S. The up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in Down's syndrome brains. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1999;97: 2758.
  • 40
    Tang FR, Lee WL, Yeo TT. Expression of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurocytol 2001;30: 40311.
  • 41
    Tang FR, Lee WL. Expression of the group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurocytol 2001;30: 13743.
  • 42
    Phillips T, Rees S, Augood S, et al. Localization of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 in the human brain. Neuroscience 2000;95: 113956.
  • 43
    Mizoguchi M, Iwaki T, Morioka T, et al. Abnormal cytoarchitecture of cortical dysplasia verified by immunohistochemistry. Clin Neuropathol 1998;17: 109.
  • 44
    Babb TL, Ying Z, Hadam J, et al. Glutamate receptor mechanisms in human epileptic dysplastic cortex. Epilepsy Res 1998;32: 2433.
  • 45
    Spreafico R, Battaglia G, Arcelli P, et al. Cortical dysplasia: an immunocytochemical study of three patients. Neurology 1998;50: 2736.
  • 46
    Hilbig A, Babb TL, Najm I, et al. Focal cortical dysplasia in children. Dev Neurosci 1999;21: 27180.
  • 47
    Merlin LR. Metabotropic glutamate receptors in the plasticity of excitatory responses in the hippocampus: clinical impact. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;446: 13144.
  • 48
    Merlin LR, Wong RK. Role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the patterning of epileptiform activities in vitro. J Neurophysiol 1997;78: 53944.
  • 49
    Merlin LR. Group I mGluR-mediated silent induction of long-lasting epileptiform discharges. J Neurophysiol 1999;82: 107881.
  • 50
    Takahashi H, Wakabayashi K, Kawai K, et al. Neuroendocrine markers in central nervous system neuronal tumors (gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Acta Neuropathol 1989;77: 23743.
  • 51
    Jay V, Becker LE, Otsubo H, Hwang PA, et al. Pathology of temporal lobectomy for refractory seizures in children: review of 20 cases including some unique malformative lesions. J Neurosurg 1993;79: 5361.
  • 52
    Prayson RA, Estes ML, Morris HH. Coexistence of neoplasia and cortical dysplasia in patients presenting with seizures. Epilepsia 1993;34: 60915.
  • 53
    Zhu JJ, Leon SP, Folkerth RD, et al. Evidence for clonal origin of neoplastic neuronal and glial cells in gangliogliomas. Am J Pathol 1997;151: 56571.
  • 54
    Blumcke I, Wiestler OD. Gangliogliomas: an intriguing tumor entity associated with focal epilepsies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2002;61: 57584.
  • 55
    Akbar MT, Rattray M, Powell JF, et al. Altered expression of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the hippocampus of amygdala-kindled rats. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1996;43: 10516.
  • 56
    Aronica EM, Gorter JA, Paupard MC, et al. Status epilepticus-induced alterations in metabotropic glutamate receptor expression in young and adult rats. J Neurosci 1997;17: 858895.
  • 57
    Blumcke I, Becker AJ, Klein C, et al. Temporal lobe epilepsy associated up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors: correlated changes in mGluR1 mRNA and protein expression in experimental animals and human patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2000;59: 110.
  • 58
    Dietrich D, Kral T, Clusmann H, et al. Reduced function of L-AP4-sensitive metabotropic glutamate receptors in human epileptic sclerotic hippocampus. Eur J Neurosci 1999;11: 110913.
  • 59
    Neugebauer V, Keele NB, Shinnick-Gallagher P. Epileptogenesis in vivo enhances the sensitivity of inhibitory presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors in basolateral amygdala neurons in vitro. J Neurosci 1997;17: 98395.
  • 60
    Tang E, Yip PK, Chapman AG, et al. Prolonged anticonvulsant action of glutamate metabotropic receptor agonists in inferior colliculus of genetically epilepsy-prone rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1997;327: 10915.
  • 61
    Attwell PJ, Koumentaki A, Abdul-Ghani AS, et al. Specific group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activation inhibits the development of kindled epilepsy in rats. Brain Res 1998;787: 28691.
  • 62
    Keele NB, Neugebauer V, Shinnick-Gallagher P. Differential effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on bursting activity in the amygdala. J Neurophysiol 1999;81: 205665.
  • 63
    Anneser JM, Horstmann S, Weydt P, et al. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors delays apoptosis of chick embryonic motor neurons in vitro. Neuroreport 1998;9: 203943.
  • 64
    Copani A, Bruno V, Battaglia G, et al. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors protects cultured neurons against apoptosis induced by beta-amyloid peptide. Mol Pharmacol 1995;47: 8907.
  • 65
    Rosenow F, Luders HO, Dinner DS, et al. Histopathological correlates of epileptogenicity as expressed by electrocorticographic spiking and seizure frequency. Epilepsia 1998;39: 8506.
  • 66
    Farrell MA, DeRosa MJ, Curran JG, et al. Neuropathologic findings in cortical resections (including hemispherectomies) performed for the treatment of intractable childhood epilepsy. Acta Neuropathol 1992;83: 24659.
  • 67
    Wolf HK, Birkholz T, Wellmer J, et al. Neurochemical profile of glioneuronal lesions from patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1995;54: 68997.
  • 68
    Miller S, Kesslak JP, Romano C, et al. Roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors in brain plasticity and pathology. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;757: 46074.
  • 69
    Romano C, Sesma MCTM, O'alley K, et al. Distribution of metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR immunoreactivity in rat brain. J Comp Neurol 1995;355: 45569.
  • 70
    Ulas J, Satou T, Ivins KJ, et al. Expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 is increased in astrocytes after kainate-induced epileptic seizures. Glia 2000;30: 35261.
  • 71
    Ferraguti F, Corti C, Valerio E, et al. Activated astrocytes in areas of kainate-induced neuronal injury upregulate the expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 and 5. Exp Brain Res 2001;137: 111.
  • 72
    Winder DG, Ritch PS, Gereau RW IV, et al. Novel glial-neuronal signalling by coactivation of metabotropic glutamate and beta-adrenergic receptors in rat hippocampus. J Physiol (Lond) 1996;494: 74355.
  • 73
    Carmignoto G. Central role of neuron-to-astrocyte signalling in the control of brain microcirculation. Neuropharmacology 2002;43: 180.
  • 74
    Bruno V, Battaglia G, Casabona G, et al. Neuroprotection by glial metabotropic glutamate receptors is mediated by transforming growth factor-beta. J Neurosci 1998;18: 9594600.
  • 75
    Ciccarelli R, Di Iorio P, Bruno V, et al. Activation of A(1) adenosine or mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptors enhances the release of nerve growth factor and S-100beta protein from cultured astrocytes. Glia 1999;27: 27581.
  • 76
    Lee SH, Magge S, Spencer DD, et al. Human epileptic astrocytes exhibit increased gap junction coupling. Glia 1995;15: 195202.
  • 77
    Attwell D. Glia and neurons in dialogue [news; comment]. Nature 1994;369: 7078.
  • 78
    Parpura V, Basarsky TA, Liu F, et al. Glutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signalling [see comments]. Nature 1994;369: 7447.
  • 79
    Ciccarelli R, Sureda FX, Casabona G, et al. Opposite influence of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes mGlu3 and -5 on astrocyte proliferation in culture. Glia 1997;21: 3908.
  • 80
    Gegelashvili G, Dehnes Y, Danbolt NC, et al. The high-affinity glutamate transporters GLT1, GLAST, and EAAT4 are regulated via different signalling mechanisms. Neurochem Int 2000;37: 16370.
  • 81
    Aronica E, Gorter JA, Ijlst-Keizers H, et al. Expression and functional role of mGluR3 and mGluR5 in human astrocytes and glioma cells: opposite regulation of glutamate transporter proteins. European Journal of Neuroscience (in press).