• 1
    Annegers JF, Grabow JD, Groover RV, et al. Seizures after head trauma: a population study. Neurology 1980;30: 6839.
  • 2
    Cooper KD, Tabaddor K, Hauser WA, et al. The epidemiology of head injury in the Bronx. Neuroepidemiology 1983;2: 7088.
  • 3
    Kraus JF, Black MA, Hessol N, et al. The incidence of acute brain injury and serious impairment in a defined population. Am J Epidemiol 1984;119: 186201.
  • 4
    Goldstein M. Traumatic brain injury: a silent epidemic. Ann Neurol 1990;27: 327.
  • 5
    Jennett B. Epilepsy after non-missile head injuries. London : William Heinemann Medical Books, 1975.
  • 6
    Caveness WF. Epilepsy, a product of trauma in our time. Epilepsia 1976;17: 20715.
  • 7
    Temkin NR. Risk factors for posttraumatic seizures in adults. Epilepsia 44(suppl. 10):1820.
  • 8
    Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis, International League Against Epilepsy. Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy. Epilepsia 1993;34: 5926.
  • 9
    Brain Injury Special Interest Group of the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Practice parameter: antiepileptic drug treatment of posttraumatic seizures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;79: 5947.
  • 10
    Yablon SA. Posttraumatic seizures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74: 9831001.
  • 11
    Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Coan SP, et al. A population-based study of seizures after traumatic brain injuries. N Engl J Med 1998;338: 204.
  • 12
    Willmore LJ, Sypert GW, Munson JB. Recurrent seizures induced by cortical iron injection: a model of posttraumatic epilepsy. Ann Neurol 1978;4: 32936.
  • 13
    Temkin NR, Jarell AD, Anderson GD. Antiepileptogenic agents: how close are we? Drugs 2001;61: 104555.
  • 14
    Servit Z, Musil F. Prophylactic treatment of posttraumatic epilepsy: results of a long-term follow-up in Czechoslovakia. Epilepsia 1981;22: 31520.
  • 15
    Wohns R, Wyler A. Prophylactic phenytoin in severe head injuries. J Neurosurg 1979;51: 5079.
  • 16
    Young B, Rapp R, Brooks W, et al. Posttraumatic epilepsy prophylaxis. Epilepsia 1979;20: 67181.
  • 17
    Murri L, Parenti G, Bonuccelli U, et al. Phenobarbital prophylaxis of posttraumatic epilepsy. Ital J Neurol Sci 1980;4: 22530.
  • 18
    Murri L, Arrigo A, Bonuccelli U, et al. Phenobarbital in the prophylaxis of late posttraumatic seizures. Ital J Neurol Sci 1992;13: 75560.
  • 19
    Price D. The efficacy of sodium valproate as the only anticonvulsant administered to neurosurgical patients. In: ParsonageM, CaldwellA, eds. The place of sodium valproate in the treatment of epilepsy. London : The Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series , 1980: 2334.
  • 20
    Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Winn HR. Clinical trials for seizure prevention. In: FrenchJ, LeppikI, DichterMA, eds. Antiepileptic drug development: advanced neurology. Philadelphia : Lippincott-Raven, 1998: 17988.
  • 21
    Hoff H. Fortschritte in der Behandlung der Epilepsie. Monatsschr Psychiatr Neurol 1947;114: 10518.
  • 22
    Birkmayer W. Die Behandlung der tramatischen Epilepsie. Wein Klein Wochenschr 1951;63: 6039.
  • 23
    McQueen JK, Blackwood BH, Harris P, et al. Low risk of late post-traumatic seizures following severe head injury: implication for clinical trials of prophylaxis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983;46: 899904.
  • 24
    Young B, Rapp RP, Norton JA, et al. Failure of prophylactically administered phenytoin to prevent early posttraumatic seizures. J Neurosurg 1983;58: 2315.
  • 25
    Young B, Rapp RP, Norton JA, et al. Failure of prophylactically administered phenytoin to prevent late posttraumatic seizures. J Neurosurg 1983;58: 23641.
  • 26
    Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Wilensky AJ, et al. A randomized double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of posttraumatic seizures. N Engl J Med 1990;323: 497502.
  • 27
    Glotzner FL, Haubitz I, Miltner F, et al. Anfallsprophylaxe mit Carbamazepin nach schweren Schadelhirnverletzungen. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 1983;26: 6679.
  • 28
    Manaka S. Cooperative prospective study on posttraumatic epilepsy: risk factors and the effect of prophylactic anticonvulsant. Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol 1992;46: 3115.
  • 29
    Pechadre JC, Lauxerois M, Colnet G, et al. Prévention de l'épilepsie posttraumatique tardive par phénytoine dans les traumatismes cranies graves: suivi durant 2 ans. Presse Med 1991;20: 8415.
  • 30
    Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Anderson GD, et al. Valproate therapy for prevention of posttraumatic seizures: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg 1999;91: 593600.
  • 31
    Schierhout G, Roberts I. Prophylactic antiepileptic agents after head injury: a systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64: 10812.
  • 32
    Schierhout G, Roberts I. Prophylactic anti-epileptic agents following acute brain injury. Cochrane Libr 1997;4: 19.
  • 33
    Dikmen SS, Temkin NR, Miller B, et al. Neurobehavioral effects of phenytoin prophylaxis of posttraumatic seizures. JAMA 1991;265: 12717.
  • 34
    Massagli TL. Neurobehavioral effects of phenytoin, carbamazepine, and valproic acid: implications for use in traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1991;72: 21926.
  • 35
    Collaborative Group for Epidemiology of Epilepsy. Adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs: a multicenter survey of clinical practice. Epilepsia 1986;27: 32330.
  • 36
    Homan RW, Miller B, Veterans Administration Epilepsy Cooperative Study Group. Causes of treatment failure with antiepileptic drugs varies with time. Neurology 1987;37: 16203.
  • 37
    Smith DB, Mattson RH, Cramer JA, et al. Results of a nationwide Veterans Administration cooperative study comparing the efficacy and toxicity of carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, and primidone. Epilepsia 1987;28(suppl 3):S508.
  • 38
    Brunbech L, Sabers A. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive function in individuals with epilepsy: a comparative review of newer versus older agents. Drugs 2002;62: 593604.
  • 39
    Hernandez TD. Preventing post-traumatic epilepsy after brain injury: weighing the costs and benefits of anticonvulsant prophylaxis. TIPS 1997;18: 5962.
  • 40
    First Seizure Trial Group. Randomized clinical trial on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing the risk of relapse after a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure. Neurology 1993;43: 47883.
  • 41
    Temkin NR. Antiepileptogenesis and seizure prevention trials with antiepileptic drugs: meta-analysis of controlled trials. Epilepsia 2001;42: 51524.