SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Morrell MJ, Sarto GE, Osborne Shafer P, Borda EA, Herzog A, Callanan M. Health issues for women with epilepsy: a descriptive survey to assess knowledge and awareness among healthcare providers. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000;9: 95965.
  • 2
    Mattson RH, Cramer JA, Darney PD, Naftolin F. Use of oral contraceptives by women with epilepsy. JAMA 1986;256: 23840.
  • 3
    Coulam CB, Annegers JF. Do oral anticonvulsants reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives Epilepsia 1979;20: 51926.
  • 4
    Zahn CA, Morrell MJ, Collins SD, Labiner DM, Yerby MS. Management issues for women with epilepsy: a review of the literature. American Academy of Neurology Practice Guidelines. Neurology 1998;51: 94956.
  • 5
    Haukkamaa M. Contraception by Norplant subdermal capsules is not reliable in epileptic patients on anticonvulsant treatment. Contraception 1986;33: 55965.
  • 6
    Odlind V, Olsson SE. Enhanced metabolism of levonorgestrel during phenytoin treatment in a woman with Norplant implants. Contraception 1986;33: 25761.
  • 7
    Wallace H, Shorvon S, Tallis R. Age-specific incidence and prevalence rates of treated epilepsy in an unselected population of 2,052,922 and age-specific fertility rates of women with epilepsy. Lancet 1998;352: 19703.
  • 8
    Dansky LV, Andermann E, Andermann F. Marriage and fertility in epileptic patients. Epilepsia 1980;21: 26171.
  • 9
    Webber MP, Hauser WA, Ottman R, Annegers JF. Fertility in persons with epilepsy: 1935–1974. Epilepsia 1986;27: 74652.
  • 10
    Schupf N, Ottman R. Reproduction among individuals with idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy: risk factors for spontaneous abortion. Epilepsia 1997;38: 8249.
  • 11
    Morrell MJ, Giudice L, Flynn KL, et al. Predictors of ovulatory failure in women with epilepsy. Ann Neurol 2002;52; 70411.
  • 12
    Jalava M, Sillanpaa M. Reproductive activity and offspring health of young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy: a controlled study. Epilepsia 1997;38: 53240.
  • 13
    Morrell MJ. Catamenial epilepsy and issues of fertility, sexuality, and reproduction. In: WyllieE, ed. The treatment of epilepsy: principles and practice. 3rd ed. Baltimore : Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2001: 6780.
  • 14
    Drislane FW, Coleman AE, Schomer DL, et al. Altered pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone in women with epilepsy. Neurology 1994;44: 30610.
  • 15
    Meo R, Bilo L, Nappi C, et al. Derangement of the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator in women with epilepsy. Seizure 1993;2: 24152.
  • 16
    Bilo L, Meo R, Valentino R, Buscaino GA, Straino S, Nappi C. Abnormal pattern of luteinizing hormone pulsatility in women with epilepsy. Fertil Steril 1991;55: 70511.
  • 17
    Isojärvi JIT, Laatikainen TJ, Pakarinen AJ, Juntunen KTS, Myllyla VV. Polycystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism in women taking valproate for epilepsy. N Engl J Med 1993;329: 13838.
  • 18
    Herzog AG. Reproductive endocrine considerations and hormonal therapy for women with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1991;32(suppl 6):S2733.
  • 19
    Murialdo G, Galimberti CA, Gianelli MV, et al. Effects of valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine on sex steroid setup in women with epilepsy. Clin Neuropharmacol 1998;21: 528.
  • 20
    Herzog AG, Seibel MM, Schomer DL, Vaitukaitis JL, Geschwind N. Reproductive endocrine disorders in women with partial seizures of temporal lobe origin. Arch Neurol 1986;43: 3416.
  • 21
    Morrell MJ, Flynn KL, Seale CG, et al. Reproductive dysfunction in women with epilepsy: antiepileptic drug effects on sex-steroid hormones. CNS Spectrums 2001;6: 77186.
  • 22
    Isojärvi JIT, Parakinen AJ, Rautio A, Pelkoren O, Myllyla VV. Serum sex hormone levels after replacing carbamazepine with oxcarbazepine. Eur Clin Pharmacol 1995;47: 4614.
  • 23
    Levesque LA, Herzog AG, Seibel MM. The effect of phenytoin and carbamazepine on serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in men and women who have partial seizures with temporal lobe involvement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;63: 2435.
  • 24
    Macphee GJ, Larkin JG, Butler E, Beastall GH, Brodie MJ. Circulating hormones and pituitary responsiveness in young epileptic men receiving long-term antiepileptic medication. Epilepsia 1988;29: 46875.
  • 25
    Fenwick PBC, Toone BK, Wheeler MJ, Nanjee MN, Grant R, Brown D. Sexual behavior in a centre for epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 1985;71: 42835.
  • 26
    Stoffel-Wagner B, Bauer J, Flugel D, Brennemann W, Klingmuller D, Elger CE. Serum sex hormones are altered in patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy receiving anticonvulsant medication. Epilepsia 1998;39: 116473.
  • 27
    Morrell MJ, Isojärvi J, Taylor A, et al. Elevated androgens and weight gain with valproate monotherapy compared with lamotrigine monotherapy: results of a cross-sectional study in women with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res (in press).
  • 28
    Polson DW, Wadsworth J, Adams J, Franks S. Polycystic ovaries–a common finding in normal women. Lancet 1988;8702.
  • 29
    Farquhar CM, Birdsall M, Manning P, Mitchell JM, France JT. The prevalence of polycystic ovaries on ultrasound scanning in a population of randomly selected women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1994;34: 6772.
  • 30
    Clayton RN, Ogden V, Hodgkinson J, et al. How common are polycystic ovaries in normal women and what is their significance for the fertility of the population Clin Endocrinol 1992;37: 12734.
  • 31
    Vainionpaa LK, Rattya J, Knip M, et al. Valproate-induced hyperandrogenism during pubertal maturation in girls with epilepsy. Ann Neurol 1999;45: 44450.
  • 32
    Herzog AG, Seibel MM, Schomer D, Vaitukaitas J, Geschwind N. Temporal lobe epilepsy: an extrahypothalamic pathogenesis for polycystic ovarian syndrome. Neurology 1984;34: 138993.
  • 33
    Isojärvi JIT, Rattya J, Myllyla VV, et al. Valproate, lamotrigine, and insulin-mediated risks in women with epilepsy. Ann Neurol 1998;43: 44651.
  • 34
    Rasgon NL, Altshuler LL, Gudeman D, et al. Medication status and PCO syndrome in women with bipolar disorder: a preliminary report. J Clin Psychiatry 2000;61: 1738.
  • 35
    O'Donovan C, Kusumakar V, Graves GR, Bird DC. Menstrual abnormalities and polycystic ovary syndrome in women taking valproate for bipolar mood disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2002;63: 32230.
  • 36
    Ferin M, Morrell M, Xiao E, Qian F, Wright T, Sauer M. Endocrine and metabolic responses to long-term monotherapy with the antiepileptic drug valproate in the normally cycling rhesus monkey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (in press).
  • 37
    Taylor DC. Sexual behavior and temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch Neurol 1969;21: 5106.
  • 38
    Blumer D, Walker AE. Sexual behavior in temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch Neurol 1967;16: 3743.
  • 39
    Hierons R, Saunders M. Impotence in patients with temporal lobe lesions. Lancet 1966;2: 7614.
  • 40
    Herzog AG, Seibel MM, Schomer DL, Vaitukaitis JL, Geschwind N. Reproductive endocrine disorders in men with partial seizures of temporal lobe origin. Arch Neurol 1986;43: 34750.
  • 41
    Demerdash A, Shaalon M, Midori A, Kamel F, Bahri M. Sexual behavior of a sample of females with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1991;32: 825.
  • 42
    Jensen SB. Sexuality and chronic illness: biopsychosocial approach. Semin Neurol 1992;12: 13540.
  • 43
    Morrell MJ, Guldner GT. Self-reported sexual function and sexual arousability in women with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1996;37: 120410.
  • 44
    Fenwick PBC, Mercer C, Grant R, et al. Nocturnal penile tumescence and serum testosterone levels. Arch Sex Behav 1986;15: 1321.
  • 45
    Guldner GT, Morrell MJ. Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity evaluation in men with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1996;37: 12114.
  • 46
    Morrell MJ, Sperling MR, Stecker M, Dichter MA. Sexual dysfunction in partial epilepsy: a deficit in physiological sexual arousal. Neurology 1994;44: 2437.
  • 47
    Morrell MJ. Sexuality in epilepsy. In: EngelJ, PedleyTA, eds. Epilepsy: a comprehensive textbook. New York : Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997: 20216.
  • 48
    Jensen P, Sorensen PS, Bjerre BD, et al. Sexuality and chronic illness: biopsychosocial approach. Semin Neurol 1992;12: 13540.
  • 49
    Saunders M, Rawson M. Sexuality in male epileptics. J Neurol Sci 1970;10: 57783.
  • 50
    Pritchard PB, Hyposexuality: a complication of complex partial epilepsy. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1980;105: 1935.
  • 51
    Shukla DG, Srivastava ON, Katiyar BC. Sexual disturbances in temporal lobe epilepsy: a controlled study. Br J Psychiatry 1979;134: 28892.
  • 52
    Cogen PH, Antunes JL, Correll JW. Reproductive function in temporal lobe epilepsy: the effect of temporal lobectomy. Surg Neurol 1979;12: 2436.
  • 53
    Rodin E, Subramanian MG, Gilroy J. Investigation of sex hormones in male epileptic patients. Epilepsia 1984;25: 6904.
  • 54
    Spark RF, Willis CA, Royal H. Hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia and temporal lobe epilepsy in hyposexual men. Lancet 1984;1: 4137.
  • 55
    Sakuma Y. Brain control of female sexual behavior. In: YokoyamaA, ed. Brain control of the reproductive system. Tokyo : Japan Scientific Societies Press, 1992: 14155.
  • 56
    Mattson RH, Cramer JA, Collins JF, et al. Comparison of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and primidone in partial and secondarily generalized tonic clonic seizures. N Engl J Med 1985;313: 14551.
  • 57
    Valimaki M, Tiihonen M, Laitinen K, et al. Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and novel markers of bone formation and resorption in patients on antiepileptic drugs. J Bone Miner Res 1994;9: 6317.
  • 58
    Sheth R, Wesolowski C, Jacob J, et al. Effect of carbamazepine and valproate on bone mineral density. J Pediatr 1996;127: 25662.
  • 59
    Chang S, Ahn C. Effects of antiepileptic drug therapy on bone mineral density in ambulatory epileptic children. Brain Dev 1994;16: 3825.
  • 60
    Bogliun G, Beghi E, Crespi V, Delodovick L, D'Amico P. Anticonvulsant drugs and bone metabolism. Acta Neurol Scand 1986;74: 2848.
  • 61
    Gough H, Goggin T, Bissessar A, Baker M, Crowley M, Callaghan N. A comparative study of the relative influence of different anticonvulsant drugs, UV exposure and diet on vitamin D and calcium metabolism in outpatients with epilepsy. QJM (New Series 59) 1986;230: 56977.
  • 62
    Marcus R. Secondary forms of osteoporosis. In: MartinJB, ReichlinS, eds. Disorders of bone and mineral metabolism: clinical neuroendocrinology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia : F.A. Davis, 1992.
  • 63
    Pack AM, Morrell MJ, Randall A, et al. Markers of general bone function, bone formation, and bone resorption in women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug monotherapy [Abstract]. Neurology 2003;60(suppl 1):A437.
  • 64
    Calandre EP, Rodriguez-Lopez C, Blazquez A, et al. Serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A and B in epileptic patients treated with valproic acid, carbamazepine or phenobarbital. Acta Neurol Scand 1991;83: 2503.
  • 65
    Louma PV, Sotaniemi EA, Peklonen RO, et al. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic cytochrome P450 concentrations in epileptics undergoing anticonvulsant treatment. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1980;40: 1637.
  • 66
    Eiris JM, Lojo S, Del Rio MC, et al. Effects of long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs on serum lipid levels in children treated with anticonvulsants. Neurology 1995;45: 11557.
  • 67
    Verrotti A, Domizio S, Angelozzi B, et al. Changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins in epileptic children treated with anticonvulsants. J Paediatr Child Health 1997;33: 2425.
  • 68
    Fisher RS, Vickrey BG, Gibson P, et al. The impact of epilepsy from the patient's perspective I. Descriptions and subjective perceptions. Epilepsy Res 2000;41: 3951.
  • 69
    Schmidt D, Beck-Mannagetta G, Janz D, Koch S. The effect of pregnancy on the course of epilepsy: a prospective study. In: JanzD, DamM, RichensA, eds. Epilepsy, pregnancy and the child. New York : Raven Press, 1982: 3949.
  • 70
    Hauser WA, Hesdorffer DC. Risk factors. In: HauserWA, HesdorfferDC, eds. Epilepsy: frequency, causes and consequences. New York : Demos , 1990: 53100.
  • 71
    Tomson T, Lindbom U, Ekqvist B, Sundqvist A. Disposition of carbamazepine and phenytoin in pregnancy. Epilepsia 1994;35: 1315.
  • 72
    Yerby MS, Friel PN, McCormick K. Pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsants in pregnancy: alterations in plasma protein binding. Epilepsy Res 1990;5: 2238.
  • 73
    Steegers-Theunissen RPM, Renier WO, et al. Factors influencing the risk of abnormal pregnancy outcome in epileptic women: a multicentre prospective study. Epilepsy Res 1994;18: 2619.
  • 74
    Teramo K, Hiilesmaa V, Brady A, Saarikoski S. Fetal heart rate during a maternal grand mal epileptic seizure. J Perinatal Med 1979;7: 36.
  • 75
    Koch S, Loesche G, Jager-Roman E, et al. Major birth malformations and antiepileptic drugs. Neurology 1992;42(suppl 5):838.
  • 76
    Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Elveback LR, Anderson VE, Kurland LT. Congenital malformations and seizure disorders in the offspring of parents with epilepsy. Int J Epidemiol 1978;7: 2417.
  • 77
    Friis ML. Facial clefts and congenital heart defects in children of parents with epilepsy: genetic and environmental etiologic factors. Acta Neurol Scand 1989: 79: 43359.
  • 78
    Holmes LB, Harvey EA, Coull BA, et al. The teratogenicity of anticonvulsant drugs. N Engl J Med 2001;344: 11328.
  • 79
    Massachusetts General Hospital. Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry. Findings. Available at http://www.massgeneral.org/aed/AED_findings.htm. Accessed April 28, 2003.
  • 80
    Rosa FW. Spina bifida in infants of women treated with carbamazepine during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1991;324: 6747.
  • 81
    Omtzigt JGC, Los FJ, Grobee DE, et al. The risk of spina bifida aperta after first-trimester exposure to valproate in a prenatal cohort. Neurology 1992;42(suppl 5):11925.
  • 82
    Gaily E, Granstrom ML. Minor anomalies in children of mothers with epilepsy. Neurology 1992;42(S5):12831.
  • 83
    Gaily E, Kantola-Sorsa E, Granstrom ML. Intelligence of children of epileptic mothers. J Pediatr 1988;113: 67784.
  • 84
    Hiilesmaa VK, Teramo K, Granstrom ML, Bardy AH. Fetal head growth retardation associated with maternal antiepileptic drugs. Lancet 1981;2: 1657.
  • 85
    Adab N, Jacoby A, Smith D, Chadwick D. Additional educational needs in children born to mothers with epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;70: 1521.
  • 86
    Kaneko S, Otani K, Fukushima Y, et al. Teratogenecity of antiepilepsy drugs: analysis of possible risk factors. Epilepsia 1988;29: 45967.
  • 87
    Finnell RH, Buehler BA, Kerr BM, Ager PL, Levy RH. Clinical and experimental studies linking oxidative metabolism to phenytoin-induced teratogenesis. Neurology 1992;42: 2531.
  • 88
    Miranda AF, Wiley MJ, Wells PG. Evidence for embryonic peroxidase-catalyzed bioactivation and glutathione-dependent cytoprotection in phenytoin teratogenicity: modulation by eicosatetraynoic acid and buthione sulfoximine in murine embryo culture. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1994;124: 23041.
  • 89
    Wegner C, Nau H. Alteration of embryonic folate metabolism by valproic acid during organogenesis: implications for mechanism of teratogenesis. Neurology 1992;42(suppl 5):1724.
  • 90
    Kerr BM, Levy RH. Inhibition of epoxide hydrolase by anticonvulsants and risk of teratogenicity. Lancet 1989;1: 6101.
  • 91
    Buehler BA, Delimont D, Van Waes M, Finnell RH. Prenatal prediction of risk of the fetal hydantoin syndrome. N Engl J Med 1990;322: 156772.
  • 92
    Finnell RH. Genetic differences in susceptibility to anticonvulsant drug induced developmental defects. Pharmacol Toxicol 1991;69: 2237.
  • 93
    Strickler SM, Dansky LV, Miller MA, Seni MH, Andermann E, Spielberg SP. Genetic predisposition to phenytoin-induced birth defects. Lancet 1985;2: 7469.
  • 94
    Nau H, Tzimas G, Mondry M, Plum C, Spohr HL. Antiepileptic drugs alter endogenous retinoid concentration: a possible mechanism of teratogenesis of anticonvulsant therapy. Life Sci 1995;57: 5360.
  • 95
    Tomson T, Lindborn U, Sundqvist A, Berg A. Red cell folate levels in pregnant epileptic women. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1995;48: 3058.
  • 96
    Steegers-Theunissen RPM, Boers GHJ, Trijbels FJM, Eskes TKAB. Neural-tube defects and derangement of homocysteine metabolism. N Engl J Med 1991;324: 199200.
  • 97
    Mills JL, McPartlin JM, Kirke PN, et al. Homocysteine metabolism in pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects. Lancet 1995;345: 14951.
  • 98
    Laurence KM, James N, Miller MH, Tennant GB, Campbell H. Double-blind, randomized controlled trial of folate treatment before conception to prevent the recurrence of neural-tube defects. Br Med J 1981;282: 150911.
  • 99
    Gordon N. Folate metabolism and neural tube defects. Brain Dev 1995;17: 30711.
  • 100
    Daly LE, Kirke PN, Molloy A, Weir DG, Scott JM. Folate levels and neural tube defects: implications for treatment. JAMA 1995;274: 1698702.
  • 101
    Milunsky A, Jick H, Jick SS, et al. Multivitamin/folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects. JAMA 1988;262: 284752.
  • 102
    Dansky L, Andermann E, Roseblatt D, Sherwin AL, Andermann F. Anticonvulsants, folate levels and pregnancy outcome. Ann Neurol 1987;21: 17682.
  • 103
    Mulinare J, Corder JF, Erickson JD, et al. Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects. JAMA 1988;260: 31415.
  • 104
    Yates JRW, Ferguson-Smith MA, Shenkin A, Guzman-Rodriguez R, White M, Clark BJ. Is disordered folate metabolism the basis for the genetic predisposition to neural tube defects Clin Genet 1987;31: 27987.
  • 105
    Werler MM, Shapiro S, Mitchell AA. Periconceptional folic acid exposure and risk of occurrent neural tube defects. JAMA 1993;269: 125761.
  • 106
    Medical Research Council Vitamin Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991;338: 1317.
  • 107
    Czeizel AE, Dudas I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N Engl J Med 1992;327: 18325.
  • 108
    MMWR. Recommendations for the use of folic acid to reduce the number of cases of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. MMWR 1992;41: 17.
  • 109
    Ogawa Y, Kaneko S, Otani K, Fukushima Y. Serum folic acid levels in epileptic mothers and their relationship to congenital malformations. Epilepsy Res 1991;8: 758.
  • 110
    Hernandez-Diaz S, Werler MM, Walker AM, et al. Folic acid antagonists during pregnancy and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med 2000;343: 160814.
  • 111
    Craig J, Morrison P, Morrow J, et al. Failure of periconceptional folic acid to prevent a neural tube defect in the offspring of a mother taking sodium valproate. Seizure 1999;8: 2534.
  • 112
    Oguni M, Dansky L, Andermann E, Sherwin A, Andermann F. Improved pregnancy outcome in epileptic women in the last decade: relationship to maternal anticonvulsant therapy. Brain Dev 1992;14: 37180.
  • 113
    Grimes DA. Unplanned pregnancies in the U.S. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67: 43842.
  • 114
    American Academy of Neurology. Quality Standards Subcommittee. Practice Parameter: management issues for women with epilepsy (summary statement). Neurology 1998;51: 9448.
  • 115
    American College of Obstetric and Gynecologic Physicians Educational Bulletin. Seizure disorders in pregnancy. 1996;231: 113.
  • 116
    Van Allen M, Fraser FC, Dallaire L, et al. Recommendations on the use of folic acid supplementation to prevent the recurrence of neural tube defects. CMAJ 1993;149: 123943.
  • 117
    Tennis P, Eldridge RR, and the International Lamotrigine Pregnancy Registry Scientific Advisory Committee. Preliminary results on pregnancy outcomes in women using lamotrigine. Epilepsia 2002;43: 11617.
  • 118
    Morrow JI, Russell A, Craig JJ, et al. Major malformations in the offspring of women with epilepsy: a comprehensive prospective study. Epilepsia 2001: 42(suppl 2):125.
  • 119
    Rabinowicz AL, Meischenguiser R, D'Giano CH, Ferraro SM, Carrazanna EJ. Report of a single centre pregnancy registry of AEDS: Focus on outcomes with oxcarbazepine. Epilepsia 2002;43(suppl 8):159.
  • 120
    Kaaja E, Kaaja R, Hiilesmaa V. Major malformations in offspring of women with epilepsy. Neurology 2003;60: 5759.
  • 121
    Commission on Genetics, Pregnancy, and the Child, International League Against Epilepsy. Guidelines for the care of women of childbearing age with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1993;34: 5889.
  • 122
    Thorp JA, Gaston L, Caspers DR, Pal ML. Current concepts and controversies in the use of vitamin K. Drugs 1995;49: 37687.
  • 123
    Cornelissen M, Steegers-Theunissen R, Kollee L, et al. Increased incidence of neonatal vitamin K deficiency resulting from maternal anticonvulsant therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168: 9238.
  • 124
    Cornelissen M, Steegers-Theunissen R, Kollee L, Eskes T, Motohara K, Monnens L. Supplementation of vitamin K in pregnant women receiving anticonvulsant therapy prevents neonatal vitamin K deficiency. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168: 8848.
  • 125
    American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 1994;93: 13750.
  • 126
    Ito S, Moretti M, Liau M, Koren G. Initiation and duration of breast-feeding in women receiving antiepileptics. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172: 8816.
  • 127
    Hagg S, Spigset O. Anticonvulsant use during lactation. Drug Saf 2000;22: 42540.
  • 128
    Bar-Oz B, Nulman I, Koren G, et al. Anticonvulsants and breast-feeding: a critical review. Pediatr Drugs 2000;2: 11326.
  • 129
    Ohman I, Vitols S, Tomson T. Lamotrigine in pregnancy: pharmacokinetics during delivery, in the neonate and during lactation. Epilepsia 2000;41: 70913.
  • 130
    Ohman I, Viols S, Luef G, Soderfeldt B, Tomson T. Topiramate pharmacokinetics during delivery, lactation, and in the neonate: preliminary observations. Epilepsia 2002;43: 115760.
  • 131
    Myllynen P, Pienimaki P, Jouppila P, Vahakangas K. Transplacental passage of oxcarbazepine and its metabolites in vivo. Epilepsia 2001;42: 14825.