Abstract Prosaposin exhibits neurotrophic factor properties that are localized to a 12-amino acid sequence located in the amino terminal portion of the saposin C domain. Prosaptides are peptides derived from the neurotrophic portion of prosaposin; these have been previously reported to be bioactive in neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro. We report that prosaptides were also bioactive in explants of adult primary sensory neurons by dose-dependently increasing both the number (3- to 4-fold) and elongation of these neurites by 50%. Local injection of prosaptides into the gluteus muscle of adult mice also induced sprouting at the motor endplate. Our results indicate that prosaptides are potent neuritogenic factors for both sensory and motor neurons of adult peripheral nerve.