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Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Interleukin 6 Predict Sarcopenia in Very Old Community-Living Men and Women: The Framingham Heart Study

Authors

  • Hélène Payette PhD,

    1. From the *Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia LaboratoryUSDA Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsUniversity of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Colorado§Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MassachusettsGeriatric Epidemiology Office, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland.
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  • Ronenn Roubenoff MD, MHS, FACP,

    1. From the *Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia LaboratoryUSDA Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsUniversity of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Colorado§Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MassachusettsGeriatric Epidemiology Office, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland.
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  • Paul F. Jacques DSc,

    1. From the *Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia LaboratoryUSDA Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsUniversity of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Colorado§Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MassachusettsGeriatric Epidemiology Office, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland.
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  • Charles A. Dinarello MD,

    1. From the *Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia LaboratoryUSDA Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsUniversity of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Colorado§Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MassachusettsGeriatric Epidemiology Office, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland.
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  • Peter W. F. Wilson MD,

    1. From the *Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia LaboratoryUSDA Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsUniversity of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Colorado§Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MassachusettsGeriatric Epidemiology Office, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland.
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  • Leslie W. Abad MS,

    1. From the *Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia LaboratoryUSDA Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsUniversity of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Colorado§Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MassachusettsGeriatric Epidemiology Office, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland.
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  • Tamara Harris MD, MSc

    1. From the *Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia LaboratoryUSDA Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsUniversity of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Colorado§Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MassachusettsGeriatric Epidemiology Office, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland.
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  • Supported by NIH/USDA Interagency agreement Y01-AG-4-0245, NIH Grant DK02120 and AG15797, NHLBI Contract N01-HC-Z5195, and USDA Cooperative Agreement 58-1950-9-001. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the USDA, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government.

Address correspondence to Hélène Payette, PhD, Research Center on Aging, Sherbrooke Geriatric University Institute, 1036 Belvédère Street, Sherbrooke (Québec) Canada, J1H 4C4. E-mail: helene.payette@usherbrooke.ca

Abstract

Objectives: To assess the prognostic role of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in predicting 2-year changes in fat-free mass (FFM) while controlling for potential confounders.

Design: Population-based cohort, the Framingham Heart Study, examined in 1992–93 and 1994–95.

Setting: General community.

Participants: Two hundred thirty-two men and 326 women aged 72 to 92.

Measurements: IGF-1 was measured using radio-immunoassay and cellular IL-6 production using non-cross-reacting radioimmunoassays. FFM was estimated using population-specific equations for predicting FFM from bioelectrical impedance analysis developed separately for men and women.

Results: Higher IGF-1 predicted smaller loss of FFM in men than lower IGF-1 did (P=.002), after adjusting for age, baseline FFM, fat mass, and 2-year weight changes, whereas cellular IL-6 was a significant predictor of sarcopenia in women (P=.02). Weight change was a strong determinant of change in FFM in both sexes (P<.0001).

Conclusion: Predictors of sarcopenia include body composition characteristics that are common to men and women and sex-specific metabolic predictors. Sarcopenia appears to reflect a withdrawal of anabolic stimuli, such as growth hormone, in men but an increase in catabolic stimuli, such as cellular IL-6, in women.

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