Abstract: The development of COX-2 selective inhibitors has opened a new era of clinical investigation in NSAIDs. Discussion of the established concepts of inflammation and therapeutical uses of these drugs has changed the rationale for its clinical use and therapeutic labeling of these drugs. A comprehensive discussion across basic science and clinical areas involved in each of these concepts is presented. This led to a remarkable re-evaluation of our insights on their traditionally proposed mechanisms of analgesia, their side-effects, and the clinical indication of NSAIDs as “over the counter” pain killers. This may shift physicians toward a more rational use of this drug class.