Blood transfusion is one of the principal routes of transmission of Chagas' disease, a major endemic disease in Latin America. Methods for blood screening are not accurate and may yield false results that lead to high social and economic costs. This study compares two methods of diagnosing Chagas' disease (indirect immunofluorescence and hemagglutination) and several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with regard to specificity and sensitivity, by using human sera with known serologic and parasitologic characteristics, as well as samples with discrepant results on conventional serologic tests. An ELISA using recombinant antigens showed no cross-reactivity with sera that were positive for other diseases. All evaluated ELISAs performed well, and their use may lead to a reduction of more than 50 percent in the number of discordant sera. Further improvements are needed in view of the complexity of the serologic diagnosis of Chagas' disease.