Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activation after blood transfusion

Authors

  • P.M. Mudido,

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    • 1

      Phillipa M. Mudido, MD, Fellow, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH.

  • D. Georges,

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    • 2

      Daniel Georges, MS, Research Assistant III and Laboratory Manager, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.

  • D. Dorazio,

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    • 3

      Dominic Dorazio, BA, Research Assistant, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.

  • B. Yen-Lieberman,

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    • 4

      Belinda Yen-Lieberman, PhD, Technical Director, Retrovirus Laboratory, Department of Clinical Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.

  • S. Bae,

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    • 5

      Steve Bae, BS, Laboratory Assistant, Department of Medicine, West Los Angeles Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

  • W.A. O'Brien,

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    • 6

      William O'Brien, MD, Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, and Director, Retrovirology Research, West Los Angeles Veterans Administration Medical Center.

  • J. Spritzler,

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    • 7

      John Spritzler, SCD, Research Associate, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

  • M.M. Lederman MD

    Professor of Medicine, and Principal Investigator, Corresponding author
      8Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106.
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8Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106.

Abstract

Background: Anemia and transfusion are predictors of disease progression in AIDS patients. This study was designed to examine the effects of blood transfusion on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) expression.

Study Design and Methods: Assays of plasma viral load were performed before and after transfusion in nine HIV-1-infected patients who required blood transfusion for refractory anemia.

Results: There was a modest rise in plasma HIV-1 p24 antigen and plasma HIV-1 RNA beginning 1 to 2 weeks after the blood transfusion. The mean change in plasma p24 antigen for all patients was 9.3 ± 5.1 (mean ± SE) pg per mL at Week 2 after transfusion and 18 ± 11.1 pg per mL at Week 4. Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were unchanged immediately after transfusion and exceeded pretransfusion levels with a mean rise of 84 ± 40 percent (SE) at Week 1, 70 ± 27 percent at Week 2, and 67 ± 38 percent at Week 4 (p equals; 0.006, exact permutation test). There was no increase in spontaneous or interleukin 2-induced lymphocyte proliferation or p24 antigen production by patients' lymphocytes that were examined immediately after blood transfusion.

Conclusion: The transfusion of blood to persons with advanced HIV-1 infection modestly increases plasma levels of HIV-1. The activation of HIV-1 expression by transfusion may help to explain the accelerated course of HIV-1 disease in recipients of blood transfusion.

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