Phillipa M. Mudido, MD, Fellow, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activation after blood transfusion
Article first published online: 28 FEB 2003
Volume 36, Issue 10, pages 860–865, October 1996
How to Cite
Mudido, P.M., Georges, D., Dorazio, D., Yen-Lieberman, B., Bae, S., O'Brien, W.A., Spritzler, J. and Lederman, M.M. (1996), Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activation after blood transfusion. Transfusion, 36: 860–865. doi: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1996.361097017170.x
- Issue published online: 28 FEB 2003
- Article first published online: 28 FEB 2003
- Received for publication November 15, 1995; revision received March 8, 1996, and accepted March 14, 1996.
Background: Anemia and transfusion are predictors of disease progression in AIDS patients. This study was designed to examine the effects of blood transfusion on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) expression.
Study Design and Methods: Assays of plasma viral load were performed before and after transfusion in nine HIV-1-infected patients who required blood transfusion for refractory anemia.
Results: There was a modest rise in plasma HIV-1 p24 antigen and plasma HIV-1 RNA beginning 1 to 2 weeks after the blood transfusion. The mean change in plasma p24 antigen for all patients was 9.3 ± 5.1 (mean ± SE) pg per mL at Week 2 after transfusion and 18 ± 11.1 pg per mL at Week 4. Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were unchanged immediately after transfusion and exceeded pretransfusion levels with a mean rise of 84 ± 40 percent (SE) at Week 1, 70 ± 27 percent at Week 2, and 67 ± 38 percent at Week 4 (p equals; 0.006, exact permutation test). There was no increase in spontaneous or interleukin 2-induced lymphocyte proliferation or p24 antigen production by patients' lymphocytes that were examined immediately after blood transfusion.
Conclusion: The transfusion of blood to persons with advanced HIV-1 infection modestly increases plasma levels of HIV-1. The activation of HIV-1 expression by transfusion may help to explain the accelerated course of HIV-1 disease in recipients of blood transfusion.