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Keywords:

  • EAG;
  • Cydia pomonella;
  • mating disruption;
  • pheromone concentration;
  • edge effects

Abstract

Pheromone concentrations were measured in an apple orchard using an advanced EAG device featuring short-term recalibration of the antenna with two calibration standards, a lightweight remotely operated probe and automated measurement cycles. The effects of wind direction on pheromone density and distribution at the edge of the orchard were studied as well as the change of pheromone density with height from 1 to 6.5 m. Results show that pheromone can be found at heights of up to 6 m when moderate winds are present. Very low wind speeds tend to reduce the height of the pheromone cloud. Clean wind entering the orchard creates a transition zone up to 15 m wide where the pheromone is depleted. At the down-wind edge of the orchard, pheromone signals were recorded at distances of up to 60 m downwind from the treated zone at concentrations in the same order of magnitude as within the treated orchards. The consequences of these results concerning the design and interpretation of mating disruption field tests are discussed.