• acclimation;
  • stress resistance;
  • parasitoids;
  • survival;
  • fecundity;
  • Trichogramma


The consequences of acclimation for survival and other fitness components in the parasitoid wasp, Trichogramma carverae (Oatman and Pinto), were examined. Heat hardening adult wasps at 33 °C or 35 °C for one to two h increased survivorship at 40 °C. This benefit was apparent for several hours after heat-hardening and occurred in both males and females. Heat hardening at 33 °C during development also resulted in significant increases in survivorship of adults after exposure to 40 °C. However, this developmental hardening reduced longevity of adult male and female wasps and also reduced parastism rate. This suggests costs and benefits of exposure to non-lethal temperature increases. Acclimating wasps by rearing them under constant temperatures (14, 25 or 30 °C) influenced parasitism rates at these temperatures at the adult stage; only females reared at 14 °C parasitised eggs at 14 °C, while parasitism at 25 °C and 30 °C was not significantly influenced by rearing temperature. Acclimation may be useful for increasing the survival or fecundity of mass-reared Trichogramma in inundative releases, but any benefits could be offset by fitness costs of the acclimation process.