Salivation into sieve elements in relation to plant chemistry: the case of the aphid Sitobion fragariae and the wheat, Triticum aestivum

Authors

  • Claudio C. Ramírez,

    1. Laboratorio de Química Ecológica, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile
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  • Hermann M. Niemeyer

    1. Laboratorio de Química Ecológica, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile
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Abstract

Extended sieve element salivation (E1 waveform in the electrical penetration graph) is a characteristic activity during early sieve element punctures, particularly in resistant plants. In order to explore a chemically-mediated mechanism of resistance associated with sieve element salivation, we compared the pattern of feeding behaviour of the aphid, Sitobion fragariae (Walker), on two cultivars of the wheat Triticum aestivum L., with different concentrations of hydroxamic acids (Hx). During 24 h of electronic monitoring, aphids dedicated over 50% of the total time to phloem ingestion from the sieve elements. Total time allocated to E1 in the experiment, time to first E1 within the experiment, time allocated to E1 before a sustained phloem ingestion (E2) and the contribution of sieve element salivation to the phloem phase (E1/[E1+E2]) were significantly higher in the high-Hx cultivar. The increased salivation in plants with higher contents of Hx suggests the existence, at least in this system, of a chemically-mediated sieve element constraint.

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