The genetic structure of 31 populations of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), located in two French cities 900 km apart, was estimated by enzyme gel electrophoresis. A set of 41 loci was analysed. Eight loci (4 Est, 3 Lap and 1 Got) were polymorphic. Diversity was estimated at different geographical levels: the overall population, between cities and within a city. Hierarchical F-statistics indicated significant genetic differentiation between all populations and among populations within each city, but no differentiation between cities. FST values for populations within each city and for the overall sample were substantially dissimilar. In addition, a cluster analysis did not separate populations according to their geographical origin but according to the predominance of either of the two alternative Est-4 alleles. The results of this analysis point to the absence of genetic differentiation on a large geographical scale: no large-scale geographical distance effect was detected. However, we evidenced strong genetic substructuring on a local scale, within cities.