• interspecific variation;
  • latitudinal variation;
  • natural enemy;
  • photoperiodic response;
  • predatory bug;
  • reproductive diapause


Interspecific and latitudinal variation in diapause characteristics were examined in 12 strains of Orius species (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) including O. sauteri (Poppius), O. nagaii Yasunaga, O. minutus (L.), O. strigicollis (Poppius), and O. tantillus (Motschulsky) from Japan. A latitudinal cline was found in the photoperiodic response controlling reproductive diapause: the lower the latitude, the lower the diapause incidence and the shorter the critical daylength. To examine the overwintering success, eight strains including four species derived from different latitudes (26–43° N) were reared outdoors in Tsukuba (36° N), central Japan from the autumn of 1998 to the summer of 1999, and their winter survival and spring fecundity were recorded. Most females of the northern strains entered diapause in the autumn when the temperature was still high, and died before winter without oviposition. In the southern strains including a nondiapause Okinawa (26° N) strain of O. strigicollis, females overwintered as well as native strains in a state of quiescence. In all strains, the winter survival was significantly lower in males than in females, and eggs and nymphs failed to overwinter.