Liver myofibroblasts are major actors in the development of liver fibrosis and cancer progression. There is a large interest in drugs that might deactivate these cells. Many studies have shown that the grapevine-derived polyphenol, trans-resveratrol, and other stilbenes have therapeutic potential in some diseases. In this work, we have studied the effect of grapevine polyphenols on cultured human liver myofibroblasts. We have shown that trans-resveratrol profoundly affects myofibroblast phenotype. Trans-resveratrol induced morphological modifications. It markedly reduced proliferation of myofibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Trans-resveratrol also decreased the expression of α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) without affecting vimentin or β-cytoplasmic actin expression. It decreased myofibroblast migration in a monolayer wounding assay. We also showed that trans-resveratrol inhibited the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of type I collagen. Finally, it decreased the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). We conclude that trans-resveratrol can deactivate human liver myofibroblasts. In the second part of this study, we have shown that neither trans-piceid (a glycosylated analog) nor trans-piceatannol (a hydroxylated analog) reproduces trans-resveratrol effects on liver myofibroblasts. We finally show that, although trans-resveratrol decreases the proliferation of skin fibroblast and vascular smooth muscle cells, it does not affect their expression of α-SMA, which indicates some cell specificity.