• 1
    Members of the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med 1992; 20:864874.MEDLINE
  • 2
    Rangel-Frausto MS, Pittet D, Costigan M, Hwang T, Davis CS, Wenzel RP. The natural history of the systemic inflammatory response (SIRS). A prospective study. JAMA 1995; 273:117123.MEDLINE
  • 3
    Nusinovici V, Crucibille C, Opolon P, Touboul JP, Darnis F, Caroli J. Hepatites fulminantes avec coma. Revue de 137 cas. I. Complications. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1977; 1:861873.MEDLINE
  • 4
    Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Davies M, Portmann B, Silk DBA, Williams R. Fulminant hepatic failure in childhood. Arch Dis Child 1980; 55:252258.MEDLINE
  • 5
    Rakela J, Lange SM, Ludwig J, Baldus WP. Fulminant hepatitis: Mayo clinic experience with 34 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 1985; 60:289292.MEDLINE
  • 6
    Gimson AES, O'Grady J, Ede RJ, Portmann B, Williams R. Late onset hepatic failure: clinical, serological and histological features. Hepatology 1986; 6:288294.MEDLINE
  • 7
    Rolando N, Harvey F, Brahm J, Philpott-Howard J, Alexander G, Gimson A, Casewell M, et al. Prospective study of bacterial infection in acute liver failure: an analysis of 50 patients. Hepatology 1990; 11:4953.MEDLINE
  • 8
    Salmerón JM, Titó L, Rimola A, Mas A, Navasa MA, Llach J, Gins A, et al. Selective intestinal decontamination in the prevention of bacterial infection in patients with acute liver failure. J Hepatol 1992; 14:280285.MEDLINE
  • 9
    Gazzard BG, Portmann B, Murray-Lyon IM, Williams R. Causes of death in fulminant hepatic failure and relationship to quantitative histological assessment of parenchymal damage. Q J Med 1975; 44:615626.MEDLINE
  • 10
    Wyke RJ, Yousif-Kadaru AGM, Rajkovic IA, Eddleston ALWF, Williams R. Serum stimulatory activity and polymorphonuclear leucocyte movement in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Clin Exp Immunol 1982; 50:442449.MEDLINE
  • 11
    Wyke RJ, Rajkovic IA, Eddleston ALWF, Williams R. Defective opsonization and complement deficiency in serum from patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Gut 1980; 21:643649.MEDLINE
  • 12
    Altin M, Rajkovic IA, Hughes RD, Williams R. Neutrophil adherence in chronic liver disease and fulminant hepatic failure. Gut 1983; 24:746750.MEDLINE
  • 13
    Clapperton M, Rolando M, Sandoval L, Davies E, Wiams R. Neutrophil superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production in patients with acute liver failure. Eur J Clin Invest 1997; 27:164168.MEDLINE
  • 14
    Rolando N, Wade JJ, Fagan EA, Philpott-Howard J, Casewell M, Williams R. An open, comparative trial of aztreonam with vancomycin and gentamicin with piperracillin in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. J Antimicrob Chemother 1992; 30:215220.MEDLINE
  • 15
    Rolando N, Gimson A, Wade JJ, Philpott-Howard J, Casewell M, Williams R. Prospective controlled trial of selective parenteral and enteral antimicrobial regimen in fulminant liver failure. Hepatology 1993; 17:196201.MEDLINE
  • 16
    Rolando N, Wade JJ, Stangou A, Wendon J, Gimson A, Philpott Howard J, Williams R. Prospective study comparing prophylactic parenteral antimicrobials with or without enteral decontamination in patients with acute liver failure. Liver Transplant Surg 1996; 2:813.
  • 17
    Dirix LY, Polson RJ, Richardson A, Williams R. Primary sepsis presenting as fulminant hepatic failure. Q J Med 1989; 73:10371043.MEDLINE
  • 18
    Bauss F, Droge W, Mannel DN. Tumor necrosis factor mediates endotoxic effects in mice. Infect Immun 1987; 55:16221625.MEDLINE
  • 19
    Beutler B. Endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor and related mediators: new approaches to shock. New Horizons 1993; 1:312.MEDLINE
  • 20
    Rees RC. Cytokines: their role in regulating immunity and the response to infection. Rev Med Microbiol 1991; 3:914.
  • 21
    Bone RC. The pathogenesis of sepsis. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115:457469.MEDLINE
  • 22
    Dinarello CA, Wolff SM. The role of interleukin-1 in disease. N Engl J Med 1993; 328:106113.MEDLINE
  • 23
    Billiau A, Vandekerckhove F. Cytokines and their interactions with other inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. Eur J Clin Invest 1991; 21:559573.MEDLINE
  • 24
    Terregino CA, Quinn JV, Slotman GJ. Pilot study of cytokines in emergency department patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Acad Emerg Med 1997; 4:684688.MEDLINE
  • 25
    Glauser MP, Zanetti G, Baumgartner JD, Cohen J. Septic shock: pathogenesis. Lancet 1991; ii:732739.
  • 26
    Lee WM. Acute liver failure. N Engl J Med 1993; 325:18621872.
  • 27
    Bismuth H, Samuel D, Castaing D, Williams R, Pereira SP. Liver transplantation in Europe for patients with acute liver failure. Semin Liver Dis 1996; 16:415425.MEDLINE
  • 28
    Peleman RR, Gavaler JS, Van Thiel DH, Esquivel C, Gordon R, Iwatsuki S, Starzl TE. Orthotopic liver transplantation for acute and subacute hepatic failure in adults. Hepatology 1987; 7:484489.MEDLINE
  • 29
    Vickers C, Neuberger J, Buckels J, McMaster P, Elias E. Transplantation of the liver in adults and children with fulminant hepatic failure. J Hepatol 1988; 7:143150.MEDLINE
  • 30
    Emond JC, Aran PP, Whitington PF, Broelsch CE, Baker AL. Liver transplantation in the management of fulminant hepatic failure. Gastroenterology 1989; 96:15831588.MEDLINE
  • 31
    Rakela J, Perkins JD, Gross JB, Hayes DH, Plevak DJ, Krom RAF, Ludwig J. Acute hepatic failure: the emerging role of orthotopic liver transplantation. Mayo Clin Proc 1989; 64:424428.MEDLINE
  • 32
    Lidofsky SD, Bass NM, Prager MC, Washington DE, Read AE, Wright TL, Ascher NL, et al. Intracranial pressure monitoring and liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology 1992; 16:17.MEDLINE
  • 33
    Mirza DF, Mohamed R, Gunson BK, Mutimer DJ, Mayer AD, Buckels JAC, Neuberger JM, et al. The improved results of emergency orthotopic liver transplantation for fulminant and sub-acute hepatic failure. Gut 1995; (Suppl)37S:A34.
  • 34
    Shenep JL, Flynn PM, Barrett FF, Stidham GL, Westenkirchner DF. Serial quantitation of endotoxemia and bacteremia during therapy for gram-negative bacterial sepsis. J Infect Dis 1988; 3:565568.
  • 35
    Hesse DG, Tracey KJ, Fong Y, Manogue KR, Palladino MA, Cerami A, Shires GT, et al. Cytokine appearance in human endotoxemia and primate bacteraemia. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1988; 2:147153.
  • 36
    Rolando N, Ellis AJ, de Groote D, Wendon J, Williams R. Correlation of serial cytokines levels with progression to coma (Grade IV) in patients with acute liver failure (ALF). Hepatology 1995; 22(Suppl):366A.
  • 37
    Remick DG, Kundel RG, Larrick JW, Kundel SL. Acute in vivo effects of human recombinant tumour necrosis factor. Lab Invest 1987; 56:583590.MEDLINE
  • 38
    Stephens KE, Ishizaka A, Larrick JW, Raffin TA. Tumour necrosis factor causes increased pulmonary permeability and oedema: comparison to septic acute lung injury. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137:13641370.MEDLINE
  • 39
    Stolpen AH, Guinan EC, Fiers W, Pober JS. Recombinant tumour necrosis factor and immune interferon act singly and in combination to reorganise human vascular endothelial cell monolayers. Am J Pathol 1986; 123:1624.MEDLINE
  • 40
    Sato N, Goto T, Haranaka K, Satomi N, Nariuchi H, Mano-Hirano Y, Sawasaki Y. Actions of tumour necrosis factor on cultures of vascular endothelial cells: morphologic modulation, growth inhibition, and cytotoxicity. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986; 76:11131121.MEDLINE
  • 41
    Muto Y, Nouri-Aria KT, Meager A, Alexander GJM, Eddleston ALW, Williams R. Enhanced tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-1 in fulminant hepatic failure. Lancet 1988; 2:7274.MEDLINE
  • 42
    de la Mata M, Meager A, Rolando N, Daniels HM, Nouri-Aria KT, Goka AKJ, Eddleston AL, et al. Tumour necrosis factor production in fulminant hepatic failure: relation to aetiology and superimposed microbial infection. Clin Exp Immunol 1990; 82:479484.MEDLINE
  • 43
    Sheron N, Goka J, Wendon J, Kaene H, Keays R, Alexander G, Williams R. Plasma cytokine levels in fulminant hepatic failure: associations with multiple organ failure. J Hepatol 1991; 13(Suppl):S71.
  • 44
    Waage A, Halstensen A, Espevik T. Association between tumour necrosis factor in serum and fatal outcome in patients with meningococcal disease. Lancet 1987; I:355357.
  • 45
    Kwiatkowski D, Hill AV, Sambou I, Twumasi P, Castracane J, Manogue KR, Cerami A, et al. Concentrations in fatal cerebral, non fatal cerebral, and uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Lancet 1990; 336:12011204.MEDLINE
  • 46
    Laskin DL. Non parenchymal cells and hepatotoxicity. Semin Liv Dis 1990; 10:293304.
  • 47
    Winwood PJ, Arthur MJP. Küpffer cells: their activation and role in animal models of liver injury and human liver disease. Semin Liv Dis 1993; 13:5055.