• 1
    Chang CN, Dkalski V, Zhou JH, Cheng YC. Biochemical pharmacology of (+)- and (-)-2′, 3′-dedeoxy-3′-thiacytidine as anti-hepatitis B virus agents. J Biol Chem 1992; 31:2241422420.
  • 2
    Doong SL, Tsai CH, Schinazi RF, Liotta DC, Cheng YC. Inhibition of the replication of hepatitis B virus in vitro by 2′, 3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine and related analogues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 19:84958499.
  • 3
    Severni A, Liu X, Wilson JS, Tyrrell DL. Mechanism of inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus polymerase by (-)-β-L-2′, 3′-dedeoxy-3′-thiacytidine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995; 39:14301435.MEDLINE
  • 4
    Xie H, Voronkov M, Liotta DC, Korba BA, Schinazi RF, Richman DD, Hostetler KY. Phosphatidyl-2′, 3′-dedeoxy-3′-thiacytidine: synthesis and activity in hepatitis B and HIV-1-infected cells. Antiviral Res 1995; 28:113120.MEDLINE
  • 5
    Lai CL, Chien RN, Leung NW, Chang TT, Guan R, Tai DI, Ng KY, et al. A one-year trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B. Asia Hepatitis Lamivudine Study. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:6168.MEDLINE
  • 6
    Ben-Ari Z, Shmueli D, Mor E, Shapira Z, Tur-Kaspa R. Beneficial effect of lamivudine in recurrent hepatitis B after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1997; 3:393396.
  • 7
    Dienstag JL, Perrillo RP, Schiff ER, Bartholomew M, Vicary C, Rubin M. A preliminary trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B infection. N Engl J Med 1995; 25:16571661.
  • 8
    Mason WS, Cullen J, Moraleda G, Saputelli J, Aldrich CE, Miller DS, Tennant B, et al. Lamivudine therapy of WHV-infected woodchucks. Virology 1998; 245:1832.MEDLINE
  • 9
    Moraleda G, Saputelli J, Aldrich CE, Averett D, Condreay L, Mason WS. Lack of effect of antiviral therapy in nondividing hepatocyte cultures on the closed circular DNA of woodchuck hepatitis virus. J Virol 1997; 71:93929399.MEDLINE
  • 10
    Liaw YF, Lai CL, Leung NWY, Chang TT, Guan R, Tai DI, Ng KY, et al. Two-year lamivudine therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection: results of a placebo controlled multi-center study in Asia [Abstract]. Gastroenterology 1998; 114:A1289.
  • 11
    Hussain M, Lok ASF. Mutations in the hepatitis B virus polymerase gene associated with antiviral treatment for hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat 1999; 6:183194.MEDLINE
  • 12
    Balzarini J, Wedgwood O, Kruining J, Pelemans H, Heijtink R, De Clercq E, McGuigan C. Anti-HIV and anti-HBV activity and resistance profile of 2′, 3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine (3TC) and its arylphosphoramidate derivative CF 1109. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 2:363369.
  • 13
    Ling R, Mutimer D, Ahmed M, Boxall EH, Elias E, Dusheiko GM, Harrison TJ. Selection of mutations in the hepatitis B virus polymerase during therapy of transplant recipients with lamivudine. Hepatology 1996; 3:711713.
  • 14
    Tipples GA, Ma MM, Fischer KP, Bain VG, Kneteman NM, Tyrell DL. Mutation in HBV RNA-dependent DNA polymerase confers resistance to lamivudine in vivo. Hepatology 1996; 3:714717.
  • 15
    Naoumov NV, Smith C, Williams R. Emergence and characterization of lamivudine resistant hepatitis B virus variant [Abstract]. Hepatology 1996; 24:282A.
  • 16
    Schalm SW. Clinical implications of lamivudine resistance by HBV. Lancet 1997; 9044:34.
  • 17
    Honkoop P, Niesters HG, de Man RA, Osterhaus AD, Schalm SW. Lamivudine resistance in immunocompetent chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol 1997; 26:13931395.MEDLINE
  • 18
    Fu L, Cheng YC. Role of additional mutations outside the YMDD motif of hepatitis B virus polymerase in L(-)SddC (3TC) resistance. Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55:15671572.MEDLINE
  • 19
    Niesters HG, Honkoop P, Haagsma EB, de Man RA, Schalm SW, Osterhaus AD. Identification of more than one mutation in the hepatitis B virus polymerase gene arising during prolonged lamivudine treatment. J Infect Dis 1998; 177:13821385.MEDLINE
  • 20
    Ono-Nita SK, Kato N, Shiratori Y, Masaki T, Lan KH, Carrilho FJ, Omata M. YMDD motif in hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase influences on replication and lamivudine resistance: a study by in vitro full-length viral DNA transfection. Hepatology 1999; 29:939945.MEDLINE
  • 21
    Chayama K, Suzuki Y, Kobayashi M, Kobayashi M, Tsubota A, Hashimoto M, Miyano Y, et al. Emergence and takeover of YMDD motif mutant hepatitis B virus during long-term lamivudine therapy and re-takeover by wild type after cessation of therapy. Hepatology 1998; 27:17111716.MEDLINE
  • 22
    Melegari M, Scaglioni PP, Wands JR. Hepatitis B virus mutants associated with 3TC and famciclovir administration are replication defective. Hepatology 1998; 27:628633.MEDLINE
  • 23
    Liaw YF, Chien RN, Yeh CT, Tsai SL, Chu CM. Acute exacerbation and hepatitis B virus clearance after emergence of YMDD motif mutation during lamivudine therapy. Hepatology 1999; 30:567572.MEDLINE
  • 24
    Lai VCH, Guan R, Wood ML, Lo SK, Yuen MF, Lai CL. Nucleic acid-based cross-linking assay for detection and quantification of hepatitis B. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37:161164.MEDLINE
  • 25
    Yeh CT, Liaw YF, Ou JH. The arginine-rich domain of hepatitis B virus precore and core proteins contains a signal for nuclear transport. J Virol 1990; 64:6131.
  • 26
    Yeh CT, Wong SW, Fung YK, Ou JH. Cell cycle regulation of nuclear localization of hepatitis B virus core protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90:64596463.MEDLINE
  • 27
    Tang JH, Yeh CT, Chen TC, Hsieh SY, Chu CM, Liaw YF. Emergence of an S gene mutant during thymosin a1 therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. J Infect Dis 1998; 178:866869.MEDLINE
  • 28
    Yeh CT, Lu SC, Chu CM, Liaw YF. Molecular cloning of a defective hepatitis C virus genome from the ascitic fluid of a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gen Virol 1997; 78:27612770.MEDLINE
  • 29
    Yeh CT, Chiu HT, Chu CM, Liaw YF. G1 phase dependent nuclear localization of relaxed-circular hepatitis B virus DNA and aphidicoline-induced accumulation of covalently closed circular DNA. J Med Virol 1998; 55:4250.MEDLINE
  • 30
    Yeh CT, Chen TC, Shyu WC, Chien RN, Chu CM, Liaw YF. Quantitative assessment of serum hepatitis B virus DNA: comparison between two different methods. Hepatol Res 1997; 7:159167.
  • 31
    Tillmann HL, Trautwein C, Bock T, Boker KH, Jackel E, Glowienka M, Oldhafer K, et al. Mutational pattern of hepatitis B virus on sequential therapy with famciclovir and lamivudine in patients with hepatitis B virus reinfection occurring under HBIg immunoglobulin after liver transplantation. Hepatology 1999; 30:244256.MEDLINE
  • 32
    Kelul AS, Lauer U, Meyer M, Caselmann WH, Hofschneider PH, Koshy R. The preS2/S region of integrated hepatitis B virus DNA encodes a transcriptional transactivator. Nature 1990; 343:457461.MEDLINE
  • 33
    Caselmann WH, Meyer M, Kekul AS, Lauer U, Hofschneider PH, Koshy R. A trans-activator function is generated by integration of hepatitis B virus preS/S sequences in human hepatocellular carcinoma DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990; 87:29702974.MEDLINE
  • 34
    Lauer U, Weiss L, Hofschneider PH, Kekul AS. The hepatitis B virus pre-S/St transactivator is generated by 3′ truncations within a defined region of the S gene. J Virol 1992; 66:52845289.MEDLINE