• 1
    LeSage GD, Benedetti A, Glaser S, Marucci L, Tretjak Z, Caligiuri A, Rodgers R, et al. Acute carbon tetrachloride feeding selectively damages large, but not small, cholangiocytes from normal rat liver. Hepatology 1999; 29:307319.MEDLINE
  • 2
    Alpini G, Phillips JO, LaRusso NF. The biology of the biliary epithelia. In: IArias, JBoyer, NFausto, WJakoby, DSchachter, DAShafritz eds. The Liver: Biology & Pathobiology 3rd Ed. New York: Raven Press. 1994; 623653.
  • 3
    Alpini G, Lenzi R, Sarkozi L, Tavoloni N. Biliary physiology in rats with bile ductular cell hyperplasia. Evidence for a secretory function of proliferated bile ductules. J Clin Invest 1988; 81:569578.MEDLINE
  • 4
    Alpini G, Glaser S, Ueno Y, Pham L, Podila P, Caligiuri A, LeSage G, et al. Heterogeneity of the proliferative capacity of rat cholangiocytes following bile duct ligation. Am J Physiol 1998; 274:G767G775.MEDLINE
  • 5
    Glaser S, Rodgers R, Phinizy JL, Robertson W, Lasater J, Caligiuri A, Tretjak Z, et al. Gastrin inhibits secretin-induced ductal secretion by interaction with specific receptors on rat cholangiocytes. Am J Physiol 1997; 273:G10611070.MEDLINE
  • 6
    Tietz P, Alpini G, Pham LD, LaRusso NF. Somatostatin inhibits secretin-induced ductal choleresis in vivo and exocytosis by cholangiocytes. Am J Physiol 1995; 269:G110G118.MEDLINE
  • 7
    Alpini G, Ulrich C, Roberts SK, Phillips JO, Ueno Y, Podila P, Colegio O, et al. Molecular and functional heterogeneity of cholangiocytes from rat liver after bile duct ligation. Am J Physiol 1997; 273:G289G297.MEDLINE
  • 8
    LeSage G, Alvaro D, Benedetti A, Glaser S, Marucci L, Eisel W, Caligiuri A, et al. Cholinergic system modulates growth, apoptosis and secretion of cholangiocytes from bile duct ligated rats. Gastroenterology 1999; 117:191199.MEDLINE
  • 9
    Yang L, Faris RA, Hixson DC. Long-term culture and characteristics of normal rat liver bile duct epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 1993; 104:840852.MEDLINE
  • 10
    Sand TE, Thoresen GH, Refsnes M, Christoffersen T. Growth-regulatory effects of glucagon, insulin, and epidermal growth factor in cultured hepatocytes. Temporal aspects and evidence for bidirectional control by cAMP. Dig Dis Sci 1992; 37:8492.MEDLINE
  • 11
    Tsujii H, Okamoto Y, Kikuchi E, Matsumoto M, Nakano H. Prostaglandin E2 and rat liver regeneration. Gastroenterology 1993; 105:495499.MEDLINE
  • 12
    Komalavilas P, Lincoln TM. Phosphorylation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase mediates cAMP and cGMP dependent phosphorylation in the intact rat aorta. J Biol Chem 1996; 271:2193321938.MEDLINE
  • 13
    Polimeno L, Azzarone A, Zeng QH, Panella C, Subbotin V, Carr B, Bouzahzah B, et al. Cell proliferation and oncogene expression after bile duct ligation in the rat: evidence of a specific growth effect on bile duct cells. Hepatology 1995; 21:10701088.MEDLINE
  • 14
    Tan CK, Podila PV, Taylor JE, Nagorney DM, Wiseman GA, Gores GJ, LaRusso NF. Human cholangiocarcinomas express somatostatin receptors and respond to somatostatin with growth inhibition. Gastroenterology 1995; 108:19081916.MEDLINE
  • 15
    Tracy TFJ, Tector AJ, Goerke ME, Kitchen S, Lagunoff D. Somatostatin analogue (octreotide) inhibits bile duct epithelial cell proliferation and fibrosis after extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Am J Pathol 1993; 143:15741578.MEDLINE
  • 16
    Beinborn M, Lee Y-M, McBride EW, Quinn SM, Kopin AS. A single amino acid of the cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor determines specificity for non-peptide antagonists. Nature 1993; 362:348350.MEDLINE
  • 17
    Yassin RR, Abrams JT. Gastrin induces IP3 formation through phospholipase C gamma 1 and pp60c-src kinase. Peptides 1998; 19:4755.MEDLINE
  • 18
    Yassin RR, Little KM. Early signaling mechanism in colonic epithelial cell response to gastrin. Biochem J 1995; 311:945950.MEDLINE
  • 19
    Yassin RR, Clearfield HR, Little KM. Gastrin's trophic effect in the colon: identification of a signaling pathway mediated by protein kinase C. Peptides 1993; 14:11191124.MEDLINE
  • 20
    Quintero E, Ohning GV, Del Rivero M, Wong HC, Walsh JH, Guth PH. Gastrin mediates the increase in gastric cell growth in uremic rats. Am J Physiol 1995; 268:G586591.MEDLINE
  • 21
    Waldum HL, Brenna E, Kleveland PM, Sandvik AK. Gastrin-physiological and pathophysiological role: clinical consequence. Dig Dis 1995; 13:2538.MEDLINE
  • 22
    Chen D, Ding XQ, Rehfeld JF, Hakanson R. Endogenous gastrin and cholecystokinin do not promote growth of rat liver. Scan J Gastroenterol 1994; 29:688692.
  • 23
    Detjen K, Fenrich MC, Logsdon CD. Transfected cholecystokinin receptors mediate growth inhibitory effects on human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Gastroenterology 1997; 112:952959.MEDLINE
  • 24
    Seva C, Dickinson CJ, Yamada T. Growth-promoting effects of glycine-extended progastrin. Science 1994; 265:410412.MEDLINE
  • 25
    Alpini G, Ulrich C, Phillips J, Pham L, Miller L, LaRusso N. Upregulation of secretin receptor gene expression in rat cholangiocytes after bile duct ligation. Am J Physiol 1994; 266:G922G928.MEDLINE
  • 26
    Beinborn M, Quinn SM, Kopin AS. Minor modifications of a cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor non-peptide antagonist confer a broad spectrum of functional properties. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:1414614151.MEDLINE
  • 27
    Numaguchi K, Shimokawa H, Nakaike R, Egashira K, Takeshita A. PKC inhibitors prevent endothelial dysfunction after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Am J Physiol 1996; 270:H1634H1639.MEDLINE
  • 28
    Ishii M, Vroman B, LaRusso NF. Isolation and morphological characterization of bile duct epithelial cells from normal rat liver. Gastroenterology 1989; 97:12361247.MEDLINE
  • 29
    LeSage G, Glaser S, Gubba S, Robertson WE, Phinizy JL, Lasater J, Rodgers R, et al. Regrowth of the rat biliary tree after 70% partial hepatectomy is coupled to increased secretin-induced ductal bile secretion. Gastroenterology 1996; 111:16331644.MEDLINE
  • 30
    Kato A, Gores GJ, LaRusso NF. Secretin stimulates exocytosis in isolated bile duct epithelial cells by a Cyclic AMP-mediated mechanism. J Biol Chem 1992; 267:1552315529.MEDLINE
  • 31
    André F, Rigot V, Remacle-Bonnet M, Luis J, Pommier G, Marvaldi J. Protein kinase C-γ and -δ are involved in insulin-like growth factor-I migration of colonic epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 1999; 116:6477.MEDLINE
  • 32
    Weibel ER, Gomez D. A principle for counting tissue structure on random sections. Appl Physiol 1962; 17:34433448.
  • 33
    Rutemberg AM, Kim H, Fishbein JW, Hanker JS, Wasserkrug HL, Seligman AM. Histochemical and ultrastructural demonstration of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. J Histochem Cytochem 1969; 17:517526.MEDLINE
  • 34
    Alpini G, Glaser SS, Robertson W, Phinizy JL, Lasater J, Rodgers R, LeSage G. Large but not small intrahepatic bile ducts (IBDU) from bile duct ligated (BDL) rats proliferate and are involved in secretin-induced ductal bile secretion [Abstract]. Hepatology 1996; 24(Suppl):84A.
  • 35
    De Weerth A, Pisegna JR, Wank SA. Guinea pig gallbladder and pancreas possess identical CCK-A receptor subtypes: receptor cloning and expression. Am J Physiol 1993; 265:G1116G1121.MEDLINE
  • 36
    Kopin AS, Lee YM, McBride EW, Miller LJ, Lu M, Lin HY, Kolakowski LFJ, et al. Expression cloning and characterization of the canine parietal cell gastrin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 15:36053609.
  • 37
    Wank SA. G protein coupled receptors in gastrointestinal physiology. I. CCK receptors: an exemplary family. Am J Physiol 1998; 274:G607G613.MEDLINE
  • 38
    Baldwin GS, Shulkes A. Gastrin, gastrin receptors and colorectal carcinoma. Gut 1998; 42:581584.MEDLINE
  • 39
    Plusczyk T, Piiper A, Schulz I. PGE2 regulates cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8)-stimulated Cl conductance in isolated zymogen granules from rat pancreas. FEBS Lett 1991; 295:8992.MEDLINE
  • 40
    Heyworth CM, Wilson SP, Gawler DJ, Houslay MD. The phorbol ester TPA prevents the expression of both glucagon desensitisation and the glucagon-mediated block of insulin stimulation of the periphereal plasma membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in rat hepatocytes. FEBS letters 1985; 187:196200.MEDLINE
  • 41
    Alvaro D, Della Guardia P, Bini A, Gigliozzi A, Furfaro S, La Rosa T, Piat C, et al. Effect of glucagon on intracellular pH regulation in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets. J Clin Invest 1995; 96:665674.MEDLINE
  • 42
    Mellor H, Parker PJ. The extended protein kinase C superfamily. Biochem J 1998; 332:281292.MEDLINE
  • 43
    McGarrity TJ, Pfeiffer JP, Neely EB, Palavarapu RG, Koltun WA, Parker P, Howett MK. Localization of protein kinase C alpha isoform expression in the human gastrointestinal tract. Cell growth differ 1996; 7:953959.MEDLINE
  • 44
    Batlle E, Verdù J, Dominguez D, del Mont Liosas M, Diaz V, Loukili N, Paciucci R, et al. Protein kinase C-alpha activity inversely modulates invasion and growth of intestinal cells. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:1509115098.MEDLINE
  • 45
    Caplin M, Khan K, Savage K, Rode J, Varro A, Michaeli D, Grimes S, et al. Expression and processing of gastrin in hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. J Hepatol 1999; 30:519526.MEDLINE
  • 46
    Kanno N, Glaser S, Phinizy JL, Baiocchi L, LeSage G, Alpini G. CCK-B/gastrin receptor signaling inhibits the growth of Mz-Cha-1 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines by a PKC-, calcium-dependent mechanism [Abstract]. Gastroenterology 1999; 116:L0212.