Primary graft nonfunction of steatotic liver allograft is one of the factors causing shortage of donor livers. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important contributory factor to primary graft nonfunction. In this study, we investigated the complex chain of events from transcription factor activation to necrosis through cytokine induction and apoptosis in steatotic rat liver after warm I/R. Rats with alcoholic or nonalcoholic fatty liver were subjected to hepatic warm I/R and compared with control rats. Rats fed an ethanol diet for 6 to 8 weeks developed severe hepatic necrosis accompanied by increased neutrophil recruitment after I/R, compared with rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver or control. Hepatic apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation at 4 hours after I/R, however, increased to a similar degree in each of the 2 fatty liver models compared with the control. Alcoholic fatty liver exposed to I/R showed a rapid increase in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding activity at 1 hour after I/R, which preceded an increased expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1). In contrast, nonalcoholic fatty liver did not show such potentiation of either NF-κB activation or cytokine induction after I/R. Our results have indicated that alcoholic fatty liver may differentially induce CINC-1 production and hepatic necrosis after I/R. Furthermore, our results suggest that apoptosis per se does not always lead to necrosis in the liver following I/R.