Cumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress resulting in lipid peroxidation and protein modification is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic liver injury and fibrogenesis. We investigated the effects of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) on collagen and fibronectin synthesis of cultured human and rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC). As shown on protein and mRNA levels, oxLDL dose-dependently stimulated the synthesis of collagen types I and III and fibronectin of cultured HSC. The effect was biphasic, with a maximum between 5 and 25 μg/mL oxLDL (c-fibronectin concentration in HSC supernatants increased 3.9-fold; collagen type I increased 4-fold). Higher oxLDL concentrations were cytotoxic. LDL modified with malondialdehyde (MDA) was not toxic, but stimulated extracellular matrix synthesis as well. As demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy (double staining of CD36 and iso-α-smooth muscle actin [iso-α-sm actin]), immunoblot, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively, cultured human HSC express the oxLDL receptor, CD36 (glycoprotein IIIb). Colocalization of CD36 and iso-α-sm actin on sinusoidal lining cells was further demonstrated using sections of human fibrotic liver. Preincubation of cultured human HSC with the monoclonal antibody, OKM5, known to block CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake, resulted in a reduction of the oxLDL-stimulated collagen type I synthesis by 56%. In summary, our results demonstrate that low concentrations of modified lipoproteins (oxLDL and MDA-LDL) represent fibrogenic mediators that bind to CD36 and stimulate matrix synthesis of HSC.