Intraductal papillary growth of neoplastic biliary epithelia with a fine fibrovascular stalk (intraductal papillary neoplasia of liver [IPN-L]) resembling intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of pancreas is occasionally associated with hepatolithiasis. In this study, 136 cases of hepatolithiasis in Taiwan, between January 1998 and March 2000, and an additional 21 cases of IPN-L before December 1998, were examined histologically. IPN-L was found in 41 of 136 hepatolithiasis cases (30.1%). Sixty-two IPN-L cases (42 women and 20 men; age range, 59.8 ± 10 years) were divided into 4 types (type 1, IPN-L with low-grade dysplasia, 23 cases; type 2, IPN-L with high grade dysplasia, 11 cases; type 3, IPN-L with in situ and microinvasive carcinoma, 13 cases; and type 4, IPN-L of types 2 and 3 with distinct invasive carcinoma, 15 cases). Intraductal spreading and glandular involvement were commonly observed in all types. About half of types 3 and 4 cases had mucobilia, and mucinous carcinoma was variably found in two thirds of group 4 patients. IPN-L frequently showed variable gastroenteric differentiation such as goblet cells and foveolar and colon-like metaplasia. IPN-L with goblet cells and colon-like metaplasia was frequently associated with overproduction of mucin and mucobilia (P < .01). In Japan, IPN-L was not frequent in hepatolithiasis (12 of 135 cases). In conclusion, IPN-L forms a spectrum of biliary neoplasm in hepatolithiasis. It often displays variable gastroenteric metaplasia and significant intraductal spread. IPN-L tends to progress to mucinous carcinoma. Formerly reported “mucin-producing intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma” with a favorable prognosis is included in IPN-L.