• 1
    Palella FJ, Jr., Delaney KM, Moorman AC, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Satten GA, Aschman DJ, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:853860.MEDLINE
  • 2
    Sulkowski MS, Thomas DL, Chaisson RE, Moore RD. Hepatotoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus and the role of hepatitis C or B virus infection. JAMA 2000; 283:7480.MEDLINE
  • 3
    den Brinker M, Wit FW, Wertheim-van Dillen PM, Jurriaans S, Weel J, van Leeuwen R, Pakker NG, et al. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infection and the risk for hepatotoxicity of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infection. AIDS 2000; 14:28952902.MEDLINE
  • 4
    Nunez M, Lana R, Mendoza JL, Martin-Carbonero L, Soriano V. Risk factors for severe hepatic injury after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001; 27:426431.MEDLINE
  • 5
    Martinez E, Blanco JL, Arnaiz JA, Perez-Cuevas JB, Mocroft A, Cruceta A, Marcos MA, et al. Hepatotoxicity in HIV-1-infected patients receiving nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2001; 15:12611268.MEDLINE
  • 6
    Saves M, Vandentorren S, Daucourt V, Marimoutou C, Dupon M, Couzigou P, Bernard N, et al. Severe hepatic cytolysis: incidence and risk factors in patients treated by antiretroviral combinations. Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1996-1998. Groupe dEpidemiologie Clinique de Sida en Aquitaine (GECSA). AIDS 1999; 13:F115F121.MEDLINE
  • 7
    Zylberberg H, Pol S. Reciprocal interactions between human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:11171125.MEDLINE
  • 8
    Sulkowski MS, Mast EE, Seeff LB, Thomas DL. Hepatitis C virus infection as an opportunistic disease in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30(Suppl 1):S77S84.MEDLINE
  • 9
    Perrillo RP, Regenstein FG, Roodman ST. Chronic hepatitis B in asymptomatic homosexual men with antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus. Ann Intern Med 1986; 105:382383.MEDLINE
  • 10
    John M, Flexman J, French MAH. Hepatitis C virus-associated hepatitis following treatment of HIV-infected patients with HIV protease inhibitors: an immune restoration disease? AIDS 1998; 12:22892293.MEDLINE
  • 11
    Brau N, Leaf HL, Wieczorek RL, Margolis DM. Severe hepatitis in three AIDS patients treated with indinavir. Lancet 1997; 349:924925.MEDLINE
  • 12
    Rodriguez-Rosado R, Garcia-Samaniego J, Soriano V. Hepatotoxicity after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy [letter]. AIDS 1998; 12:1256.MEDLINE
  • 13
    Lucas GM, Chaisson RE, Moore RD. Comparison of initial combination antiretroviral therapy with a single protease inhibitor, ritonavir and saquinavir, or efavirenz. AIDS 2001; 15:16791686.MEDLINE
  • 14
    Moyle G. The emerging roles of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in antiretroviral therapy. Drugs 2001; 61:1926.MEDLINE
  • 15
    Staszewski S, Morales-Ramirez J, Tashima KT, Rachlis A, Skiest D, Stanford J, Stryker R, et al. Efavirenz plus zidovudine and lamivudine, efavirenz plus indinavir, and indinavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults. Study 006 Team. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:18651873.MEDLINE
  • 16
    Rey D, Schmitt MP, Partisani M, Hess-Kempf G, Krantz V, de Mautort E, Bernard-Henry C, et al. Efavirenz as a substitute for protease inhibitors in HIV-1-infected patients with undetectable plasma viral load on HAART: a median follow-up of 64 weeks. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001; 27:459462.MEDLINE
  • 17
    Albrecht MA, Bosch RJ, Hammer SM, Liou SH, Kessler H, Para MF, Eron J, et al. Nelfinavir, efavirenz, or both after the failure of nucleoside treatment of HIV infection. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:398407.MEDLINE
  • 18
    Sha BE, Proia LA, Kessler HA. Adverse effects associated with use of nevirapine in HIV postexposure prophylaxis for 2 health care workers. JAMA 2000; 284:2723.MEDLINE
  • 19
    Johnson S, Baraboutis JG. Adverse effects associated with use of nevirapine in HIV postexposure prophylaxis for 2 health care workers. JAMA 2000; 284:27222723.MEDLINE
  • 20
    Cattelan AM, Erne E, Salatino A, Trevenzoli M, Carretta G, Meneghetti F, Cadrobbi P. Severe hepatic failure related to nevirapine treatment. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29:455456.MEDLINE
  • 21
    Pollard RB, Robinson P, Dransfield K. Safety profile of nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Ther 1998; 20:10711092.MEDLINE
  • 22
    Montaner JS, Reiss P, Cooper D, Vella S, Harris M, Conway B, Wainberg MA, et al. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing combinations of nevirapine, didanosine, and zidovudine for HIV-infected patients: the INCAS Trial. Italy, The Netherlands, Canada and Australia Study. JAMA 1998; 279:930937.MEDLINE
  • 23
    D'Aquila RT, Hughes MD, Johnson VA, Fischl MA, Sommadossi JP, Liou SH, Timpone J, et al. Nevirapine, zidovudine, and didanosine compared with zidovudine and didanosine in patients with HIV-1 infection. A randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled trial. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 241 Investigators. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124:10191030.MEDLINE
  • 24
    Prakash M, Poreddy V, Tiyyagura L, Bonacini M. Jaundice and hepatocellular damage associated with nevirapine therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96:15711574.MEDLINE
    Direct Link:
  • 25
    Fagot JP, Mockenhaupt M, Bouwes-Bavinck JN, Naldi L, Viboud C, Roujeau JC. Nevirapine and the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. AIDS 2001; 15:18431848.MEDLINE
  • 26
    Nevirapine (Viramune®) product information. Roxane Laboratories, Inc. Columbus, OH, 2000.
  • 27
    Efavirenz (Sustiva™) product information. Dupont Pharmaceuticals Company. Wilmington, DE, 2000.
  • 28
    Dieterich D, Stern J, Robinson P, Hall D, Carlier H. Analysis of four key trials to assess the risk of hepatotoxicity with nevirapine: correlation with CD4 levels, hepatitis B and C seropositivity and baseline liver function tests [abstract 44]. 1st International AIDS Society on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment. July 8 -11, 2001, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • 29
    Verdon R, Six M, Rousselot P, Bazin C. Efavirenz-induced acute eosinophilic hepatitis. J Hepatol 2001; 34:783785.MEDLINE
  • 30
    Peytavin G, Landman R, Lamotte C, Trylesinski A, Legac S, Mentre F, Yeni P. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nelfinavir in a prospective study in HIV-HCV coinfected patients with chronic liver disease [abstract 349]. 1st International AIDS Society on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment. July 8 -11, 2001, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • 31
    Reisler R, Liou S, Servoss J, Robbins G, Theodore D, Murphy R, Chung R. Incidence of hepatotoxicity and mortality in 21 adult antiretroviral treatment trials [abstract 43]. 1st International AIDS Society on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment. July 8 -11, 2001, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • 32
    Miwa LJ, Jones JK, Pathiyal A, Hatoum H. Value of epidemiologic studies in determining the true incidence of adverse events. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug story. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157:21292136.MEDLINE
  • 33
    Moore RD, Stanton D, Gopalan R, Chaisson RE. Racial differences in the use of drug therapy for HIV disease in an urban community. N Engl J Med 1994; 330:763768.MEDLINE
  • 34
    Fiske W, Benedek I, Brennan J, Davidson A, Gillette S, Joseph JD, Kornhauser D. Pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in subjects with chronic liver disease [Abstract 367]. In: Program and abstracts of the 6th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Chicago, IL: January 31-February 4, 1999.
  • 35
    Bersoff-Matcha SJ, Miller WC, Aberg JA, van der Horst DC, Hamrick Jr HJ, Powderly WG. Sex differences in nevirapine rash. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32:124129.MEDLINE
  • 36
    Antinori A, Baldini F, Girardi E, Cingolani A, Zaccarelli M, Di Giambenedetto S, Barracchini A, et al. Female sex and the use of anti-allergic agents increase the risk of developing cutaneous rash associated with nevirapine therapy. AIDS 2001; 15:15791581.MEDLINE
  • 37
    Bartlett J. Severe liver toxicity in patients receiving two nucleoside analogues and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [Abstract 19]. In: Program and abstracts of the 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Chicago, IL: February 4-8, 2001.
  • 38
    Miguez-Burbano M, Castillo G, Rodriguez A, Lecusay R, Campa A, Shor-Posner G. Gender specific differences related to nevirapine treatment in HIV-1 infected drug users [abstract 378]. 1st International AIDS Society on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment. July 8 -11, 2001, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • 39
    Clarke S, Harrington P, Barry M, Mulcahy F. The tolerability of efavirenz after nevirapine-related adverse events. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31:806807.MEDLINE
  • 40
    Haas DW, Fessel WJ, Delapenha RA, Kessler H, Seekins D, Kaplan M, Ruiz NM, et al. Therapy with efavirenz plus indinavir in patients with extensive prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor experience: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dis 2001; 183:392400.MEDLINE
  • 41
    Palmon R, Trilli R, Braun JF, Kreisworth S, McMeeking AF, Mullen M, Weisz K, et al. Hepatotoxicity associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus and the effect of hepatitis B or C virus infection [Abstract 610]. Hepatology 2000; 32:312A.
  • 42
    Ragni MV, Bontempo FA. Increase in hepatitis C virus load in hemophiliacs during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis 1999; 180:20272029.MEDLINE
  • 43
    Rutschmann OT, Negro F, Hirschel B, Hadengue A, Anwar D, Perrin LH. Impact of treatment with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors on hepatitis C viremia in patients coinfected with HIV. J Infect Dis 1998; 177:783785.MEDLINE
  • 44
    Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Di Martino V, Charlotte F, Azria F, Coutellier A, Vidaud M, et al. Liver fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. The Multivirc Group. Hepatology 1999; 30:10541058.MEDLINE
  • 45
    Monga HK, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Breaux K, Khattak K, Troisi CL, Velez M, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection-related morbidity and mortality among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33:240247.MEDLINE
  • 46
    von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Granda BW, Giancarlo GM, Duan SX, Daily JP, et al. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 isoforms by nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 41:8591.MEDLINE
  • 47
    Marzolini C, Telenti A, Decosterd LA, Greub G, Biollaz J, Buclin T. Efavirenz plasma levels can predict treatment failure and central nervous system side effects in HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS 2001; 15:7175.MEDLINE
  • 48
    Maserati R, Villani P, Seminari E, Pan A, Lo CS, Regazzi MB. High plasma levels of nelfinavir and efavirenz in two HIV-positive patients with hepatic disease. AIDS 1999; 13:870871.MEDLINE
  • 49
    Veronese L, Rautaureau J, Sadler BM, Gillotin C, Petite JP, Pillegand B, et al. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of amprenavir, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor, in subjects with normal or impaired hepatic function. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44:821826.MEDLINE
  • 50
    Carr A, Morey A, Mallon P, Williams D, Thorburn DR. Fatal portal hypertension, liver failure, and mitochondrial dysfunction after HIV-1 nucleoside analogue-induced hepatitis and lactic acidaemia. Lancet 2001; 357:14121414.MEDLINE
  • 51
    Kronenberg A, Riehle HM, Gunthard HF. Liver failure after long-term nucleoside antiretroviral therapy. Lancet 2001; 358:759601.MEDLINE
  • 52
    Thomas DL, Astemborski J, Rai RM, Anania FA, Schaeffer M, Galai N, et al. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: host, viral, and environmental factors. JAMA 2000; 284:450456.MEDLINE