• 1
    Ludwig J, Viggiano TR, McGill DB, Oh BJ. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Mayo Clinic experiences with a hitherto unnamed disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1980; 55:434438. MEDLINE
  • 2
    Powell EE, Cooksley WG, Hanson R, Searle J, Halliday JW, Powell LW. The natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a follow-up study of forty-two patients for up to 21 years. Hepatology 1990; 11:7480. MEDLINE
  • 3
    Pinto HC, Baptista A, Camilo ME, Valente A, Saragoca A, de Moura MC. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clinicopathological comparison with alcoholic hepatitis in ambulatory and hospitalized patients. Digest Dis Sci 1996; 41:172179. MEDLINE
  • 4
    Bacon BR, Farahvash MJ, Janney CG, Neuschwander-Tetri BA. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: an expanded clinical entity. Gastroenterology 1994; 107:11031109. MEDLINE
  • 5
    Lee RG. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a study of 49 patients. Hum Pathol 1989; 20:594598. MEDLINE
  • 6
    Baldridge AD, Perez-Atayde AR, Graeme-Cook F, Higgins L, Lavine JE. Idiopathic steatohepatitis in childhood: a multicenter retrospective study. J Pediatr 1995; 127:700704. MEDLINE
  • 7
    Silverman JF, O'Brien KF, Long S, Leggett N, Khazanie PG, Pories WJ, Norris HT, et al. Liver pathology in morbidly obese patients with and without diabetes. Am J Gastroenterol 1990; 85:13491355. MEDLINE
  • 8
    Teli MR, James OF, Burt AD, Bennett MK, Day CP. The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver: A follow-up study. Hepatology 1995; 22:17141719. MEDLINE
  • 9
    Samarasinghe D, Tasman-Jones C. The clinical associations with hepatic steatosis: a retrospective study. N Z Med J 1992; 105:5758. MEDLINE
  • 10
    Pullinger CR, North JD, Teng BB, Rifici VA, Ronhild de Brito AE, Scott J. The apolipoprotein B gene is constitutively expressed in HepG2 cells: regulation of secretion by oleic acid, albumin, and insulin, and measurement of the mRNA half-life. J Lipid Res 1989; 30:10651077. MEDLINE
  • 11
    Dashti N, Williams DL, Alaupovic P. Effects of oleate and insulin on the production rates and cellular mRNA concentrations of apolipoproteins in HepG2 cells. J Lipid Res 1989; 30:13651373. MEDLINE
  • 12
    Lewis GF, Uffelman KD, Szeto LW, Steiner G. Effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on VLDL triglyceride and VLDL apoB production in normal weight and obese individuals. Diabetes 1993; 42:833842. MEDLINE
  • 13
    Cummings MH, Watts GF, Umpleby AM, Hennessy TR, Kelly JM, Jackson NC, Sonksen PH. Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases the hepatic secretion of very-low–density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 in NIDDM. Diabetes 1995; 44:10591065. MEDLINE
  • 14
    Berrut C, Curati W, de Gautard R, Widmann JJ, Godin N, Loizeau E. [The role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of diffuse liver disease]. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1986; (Journal Suisse de Me)116:215218.
  • 15
    Graif M, Yanuka M, Baraz M, Blank A, Moshkovitz M, Kessler A, Gilat T, et al. Quantitative estimation of attenuation in ultrasound video images: correlation with histology in diffuse liver disease. Invest Radiol 2000; 35:319324. MEDLINE
  • 16
    Mendler MH, Bouillet P, Le Sidaner A, Lavoine E, Labrousse F, Sautereau D, Pillegand B. Dual-energy CT in the diagnosis and quantification of fatty liver: limited clinical value in comparison to ultrasound scan and single-energy CT, with special reference to iron overload. J Hepatol 1998; 28:785794. MEDLINE
  • 17
    Cavouras D, Kandarakis I, Theotokas I, Kanellopoulos E, Triantis D, Behrakis I, Manesis EK, et al. Computer image analysis of ultrasound images for discriminating and grading liver parenchyma disease employing a hierarchical decision tree scheme and the multilayer perception neural network classifier. Stud Health Technol Informatics 1997; 43:t6.
  • 18
    Caturelli E, Squillante MM, Andriulli A, Cedrone A, Cellerino C, Pompili M, Manoja ER, et al. Hypoechoic lesions in the “bright liver”: a reliable indicator of fatty change. A prospective study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1992; 7:469472. MEDLINE
  • 19
    Hartman PC, Oosterveld BJ, Thijssen JM, Rosenbusch GJ, van den BJ. Detection and differentiation of diffuse liver disease by quantitative echography. A retrospective assessment. Invest Radiol 1993; 28:16. MEDLINE
  • 20
    Haberkorn U, Zuna I, Lorenz A, Zerban H, Layer G, van Kaick G, Rath U. Echographic tissue characterization in diffuse parenchymal liver disease: correlation of image structure with histology. Ultrasonic Imaging 1990; 12:155170. MEDLINE
  • 21
    Kojima K, Seo H, Hino I, Kawasaki Y, Satoh K, Tanabe M, Kawase Y, et al. [Ultrasonographic diagnosis of mild fatty infiltration of the liver with the difference between liver and kidney echolevels]. Nippon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi—Nippon Acta Radiologica 1989; 49:153162. MEDLINE
  • 22
    Matthews DE, Motil KJ, Rohrbaugh DK, Burke JF, Young VR, Bier DM. Measurement of leucine metabolism in man from a primed, continuous infusion of L-[1-3C]leucine. Am J Physiol 1980; 238:E473E479. MEDLINE
  • 23
    Abumrad NN, Rabin D, Diamond MP, Lacy WW. Use of a heated superficial hand vein as an alternative site for the measurement of amino acid concentrations and for the study of glucose and alanine kinetics in man. Metabol Clinical Exp 1981; 30:936940.
  • 24
    Hill DW, Walters FH, Wilson TD, Stuart JD. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of amino acids in the picomole range. Anal Chem 1979; 51:13381341. MEDLINE
  • 25
    Meineke I, Stuwe E, Henne EM, Rusteberg G, Brendel E, De Mey C. Routine measurement of plasma catecholamines in clinical pharmacology by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatograph 1989; 493:287303.
  • 26
    Fu AZ, Morris JC, Ford GC, Nair KS. Sequential purification of human apolipoprotein B-100, albumin, and fibrinogen by immunoaffinity chromatography for measurement of protein synthesis. Anal Biochem 1997; 247:228236. MEDLINE
  • 27
    Milne RW, Weech PK, Blanchette L, Davignon J, Alaupovic P, Marcel YL. Isolation and characterization of apolipoprotein B-48 and B-100 very-low–density lipoproteins from type III hyperlipoproteinemic subjects. J Clin Invest 1984; 73:816823. MEDLINE
  • 28
    Matthews DE, Bier DM, Rennie MJ, Edwards RH, Halliday D, Millward DJ, Clugston GA. Regulation of leucine metabolism in man: a stable isotope study. Science 1981; 214:11291131. MEDLINE
  • 29
    Halliday D, Read WW. Mass spectrometric assay of stable isotopic enrichment for the estimation of protein turnover in man. Proc Nutr Soc 1981; 40:321324. MEDLINE
  • 30
    Venkatesan S, Pacy PJ, Wenham D, Halliday D. Very-low–density lipoprotein-apolipoprotein B turnover studies in normal subjects: a stable isotope study. Biochem Soc Trans 1990; 18:11921193. MEDLINE
  • 31
    Baumann PQ, Stirewalt WS, O'Rourke BD, Howard D, Nair KS. Precursor pools of protein synthesis: a stable isotope study in a swine model. Am J Physiol 1994; 267:E203E209. MEDLINE
  • 32
    Nikkila EA, Kekki M. Plasma triglyceride transport kinetics in diabetes mellitus. Metabol Clinical Exp 1973; 22:122.
  • 33
    Halliday D, Venkatesan S, Pacy P. Apolipoprotein metabolism: a stable-isotope approach. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57(Suppl):730S.
  • 34
    Cryer DR, Matsushima T, Marsh JB, Yudkoff M, Coates PM, Cortner JA. Direct measurement of apolipoprotein B synthesis in human very-low–density lipoprotein using stable isotopes and mass spectrometry. J Lipid Res 1986; 27:508516. MEDLINE
  • 35
    Bowyer BA, Fleming CR, Ludwig J, Petz J, McGill DB. Does long-term home parenteral nutrition in adult patients cause chronic liver disease? J Parent Enter Nutr 1985; 9:1117.
  • 36
    Fleming CR. Hepatobiliary complications in adults receiving nutrition support. Dig Dis 1994; 12:191198. MEDLINE
  • 37
    Cummings MH, Watts GF, Umpleby AM, Hennessy TR, Naoumova R, Slavin, BM, Thompson GR, et al. Increased hepatic secretion of very-low–density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 in NIDDM. Diabetologia 1995; 38:959967. MEDLINE
  • 38
    De Feo P, Gaisano MG, Haymond MW. Differential effects of insulin deficiency on albumin and fibrinogen synthesis in humans. J Clin Invest 1991; 88:833840. MEDLINE
  • 39
    De Feo P, Volpi E, Lucidi P, Cruciani G, Reboldi G, Siepi D, Mannarino E, et al. Physiological increments in plasma insulin concentrations have selective and different effects on synthesis of hepatic proteins in normal humans. Diabetes 1993; 42:9951002. MEDLINE
  • 40
    Gibbons GF, Pullinger CR. Regulation of hepatic very-low–density lipoprotein secretion in rats fed on a diet high in unsaturated fat. Biochem J 1987; 243:487492. MEDLINE
  • 41
    Bjornsson OG, Sparks JD, Sparks CE, Gibbons GF. Regulation of VLDL secretion in primary culture of rat hepatocytes: Involvement of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Eur J Clin Invest 1994; 24:137148. MEDLINE
  • 42
    Carroll PV, Christ ER, Umpleby AM, Gowrie I, Jackson N, Bowes SB, Hovorka R, et al. IGF-I treatment in adults with type 1 diabetes: effects on glucose and protein metabolism in the fasting state and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic amino acid clamp. Diabetes 2000; 49:789796. MEDLINE
  • 43
    Tian H, Ma A, Li C, Cheng M, Bai L, Liu H. Correlative factors of insulin resistance in essential hypertension. Hypertens Res 2000; 23:265270. MEDLINE
  • 44
    Woods KA, Camacho-Hubner C, Bergman RN, Barter D, Clark AJ, Savage MO. Effects of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) therapy on body composition and insulin resistance in IGF-I gene deletion. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2000; 85:14071411.
  • 45
    Acerini CL, Harris DA, Matyka KA, Watts AP, Umpleby AM, Russell-Jones DL, Dunger DB. Effects of low-dose recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I on insulin sensitivity, growth hormone and glucagon levels in young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabol Clin Exp 1998; 47:14811489.
  • 46
    Carmassi F, Morale M, Puccetti R, De Negri F, Monzani F, Navalesi R, Mariani G. Coagulation and fibrinolytic system impairment in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Thromb Res 1992; 67:643654. MEDLINE
  • 47
    Wanless IR, Lentz JS. Fatty liver hepatitis (steatohepatitis) and obesity: an autopsy study with analysis of risk factors. Hepatology 1990; 12:11061110. MEDLINE