• 1
    Nomura H, Kashiwagi S, Hayashi J, Kajiyama W, Tani S, Goto M. Prevalence of fatty liver in a general population of Okinawa, Japan. Jpn J Med 1988; 27:142149.
  • 2
    Bellentani S, Saccoccio G, Masutti F, Croce LS, Brandi G, Sasso F, Cristanini G, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for hepatic steatosis in Northern Italy. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132:112117.
  • 3
    Clark JM, Brancati FL, Diehl AM. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its correlates in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol (in press).
  • 4
    Matteoni C, Younossi ZM, McCullough A. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a spectrum of clinical pathological severity. Gastroenterology 1999; 116:14131419.
  • 5
    Menon KV, Gores GJ, Shah VH. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Mayo Clin Proc 2001; 76:10211029.
  • 6
    Pares A, Caballeria J, Brugera M. Histologic course of alcoholic hepatitis: influence of abstinence, sex, and extent of hepatic damage. J Hepatol 1986; 2:3338.
  • 7
    Galambos J. Natural history of alcoholic hepatitis III: histologic changes. Gastroenterology 1972; 56:515522.
  • 8
    Iimuro Y, Gallucci RM, Luster MI, Kono H, Thurman RG. Antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alfa attenuate hepatic necrosis and inflammation caused by chronic exposure to ethanol in the rat. Hepatology 1997; 26:15301537.
  • 9
    Adachi Y, Moore LE, Bradford BU, Gao W, Thurman RG. Antibiotics prevent liver injury in rats following long-term exposure to ethanol. Gastroenterology 1995; 108:218224.
  • 10
    Nanji AA, Khettry U, Sadrzadeh SM. Lactobacillus feeding reduces endotoxemia and severity of experimental alcoholic liver disease. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994; 205:243247.
  • 11
    Imperiale TF, McCullough AJ. Do corticosteroids reduce mortality from alcoholic hepatitis? A meta-analysis of the randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113:299300.
  • 12
    Akriviadis E, Botla R, Briggs W, Han S, Reynolds T, Shakil O. Pentoxifylline improves short-term survival in severe acute alcoholic hepatitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2000; 119:16371648.
  • 13
    Yen TT, Allan JA, Pearson DV, Schinitsky MR. Dissociation of obesity, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes from atherosclerosis in ob/ob mice. Experientia 1977; 33:995996.
  • 14
    Yen TT, Allan JA, Yu P-L, Acton MA, Pearson DV. Triacylglycerol contents and in vivo lipogenesis of ob/ob, db/db, and Ay/a mice. Biochim Biophys Acta 1976; 441:213220.
  • 15
    Austin BP, Garthwaite TL, Hagen TC, Stevens JO, Menahan LA. Hormonal, metabolic and morphologic studies of aged C57BL/6J obese mice. Exp Gerontol 1984; 19:121132.
  • 16
    Cope K, Risby T, Diehl AM. Increased gastrointestinal ethanol production in obese mice: implications for fatty liver disease pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 2000; 119:13401347.
  • 17
    Lin HZ, Yang SQ, Kujhada F, Ronnet G, Diehl AM. Metformin reverses nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese leptin-deficient mice. Nat Med 2000; 6:9981003.
  • 18
    Solomon SS, Mishra SK, Cwik C, Rajanna B, Postlethwaite AE. Pioglitazone and metformin reverse insulin resistance induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in liver cells. Horm Metab Res 1997; 29:379382.
  • 19
    Uysal KT, Wiesbrock SM, Marino MW, Hotamisligil GS. Protection from obesity-induced insulin-resistance in mice lacking TNF alpha function. Nature 1997; 389:610614.
  • 20
    Brigidi P, Vitali B, Swennen E, Altomare L, Rossi M, Matteuzzi D. Specific detection of bifidobacterium strains in a pharmaceutical probiotic product and in human feces by polymerase chain reaction. Syst Appl Microbiol 2000; 23:391399.
  • 21
    Venturi A, Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Johansson R, Zucconi E, Brigidi P, Matteuzzi D, et al. Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13:11031108.
  • 22
    Aguirre V, Uchida T, Yenush L, Davis R, White MF. The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase promotes insulin resistance during association with insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphorylation of Ser(307). J Biol Chem 2000; 275:90479054.
  • 23
    Aggarwal BB. Tumour necrosis factor receptor associated signalling molecules and their role in activation of apoptosis, JNK and NK-kappa B. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59:I6I16.
  • 24
    Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 1957; 226:457509.
  • 25
    Moser AB, Jones DS, Raymond GV, Moser HW. Plasma and red blood cell fatty acids in peroxisomal disorders. Neurochem Res 1999; 24:187197.
  • 26
    Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Diehl AM. Fatty liver vulnerability to lipopolysaccharide despite NF-kB induction and caspase 3 inhibition. Am J Physiol 2001; 281:G382G392.
  • 27
    Chomczynski P, Sacchi N. Single step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidine thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 1987; 162:156161.
  • 28
    Diehl AM, Yin M, Fleckenstein J, Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Brenner DA, Westwick J, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces c-jun during the regenerative response to liver injury. Am J Physiol 1994; 267:G552G561.
  • 29
    Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Yin M, Albrecht JH, Diehl AM. Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on cytokine regulation of liver regeneration. Am J Physiol 1998; 275:G696G704.
  • 30
    Watkins PA, Ferrell EVJ, Pedersen JI, Hoefler G. Peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation in Hep-G2 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 1991; 289:329336.
  • 31
    Yuan M, Konstantopoulos N, Lee J, Hansen L, Li Z-W, Karin M, Shoelson SE. Reversal of obesity- and diet-induced insulin resistance with salicylates or targeted disruption of IKKbeta. Science 2001; 293:16731677.
  • 32
    Stancovski I, Baltimore D. NF-kappaB activation: the I kappaB kinase revealed? Cell 1997; 91:299302.
  • 33
    Cohen P, Miyazaki M, Socci ND, Hagge-Greenberg A, Liedtke W, Soukas AA, Sharma R, et al. Role for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in leptin-mediated weight loss. Science 2002; 297:240243.
  • 34
    Sanyal AJ, Campbell-Sargent C, Mirshahi F, Rizzo WB, Contos MJ, Sterling RK, Luketic VA, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association of insulin resistance and mitochondrial abnormalities. Gastroenterology 2001; 120:11831192.
  • 35
    De Fronzo RA, Ferranini E. Insulin resistance. A multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 1991; 14:173194.
  • 36
    Li LX, Skorpen F, Egeberg K, Jorgensen IH, Grill V. Induction of uncoupling protein 2 mRNA in beta-cells is stimulated by oxidation of fatty acids but not by nutrient oversupply. Endocrinology 2002; 143:13711377.
  • 37
    Cortez-Pinto H, Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Costa S, Hwang C-S, Lane MD, Bagby G, et al. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces uncoupling protein-2 in hepatocytes via a tumor necrosis alpha-dependent mechanism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 251:313319.
  • 38
    Chavin K, Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Chatham J, Chacko VP, Hoek JB, Walajtyzs-Rode E, et al. Obesity induces expression of uncoupling protein-2 in hepatocytes and promotes liver ATP depletion. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:56925700.
  • 39
    Haines NW, Baker AL, Boyer JL, Glagov S, Schneir H, Jaspan J, Ferguson DJ. Prognostic indications of hepatic injury following jejunal ileal bypass for refractory obesity: a prospective study. Hepatology 1981; 1:161167.
  • 40
    Wigg AJ, Roberts-Thomson IC, Dymock RB, McCarthy PJ, Grose RH, Cummins AG. The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal permeability, endotoxaemia, and tumour necrosis factor alpha in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Gut 2001; 48:206211.
  • 41
    Koteish A, Diehl AM. Animal models of steatosis. Semin Liver Dis 2001; 21:89104.
  • 42
    Tobe K, Suzuki R, Aoyama M, Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Kubota N, Terauchi Y, et al. Increased expression of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 gene in insulin receptor substrate-2(-/-) mouse liver. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:3833738340.
  • 43
    Kim JK, Fillmore JJ, Chen Y, Yu C, Moore IK, Pypaert M, Lutz EP, et al. Tissue-specific overexpression of lipoprotein lipase causes tissue-specific insulin resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98:75227527.
  • 44
    Marchesini G, Brizi M, Morselli-Labate AM, Bianchi G, Bugianesi E, McCullough AJ, Forlani G, et al. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with insulin resistance. Am J Med 1999; 107:450455.
  • 45
    Memon RA, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Increased hepatic TNF alpha expression is not the mechanism for fatty liver disease in obese diabetic mice. Nat Med 2001; 7:23.
  • 46
    Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Lane MD, Clemens M, Diehl AM. Obesity increases sensitivity to endotoxin liver injury: implications for pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997; 94:25572562.
  • 47
    Marchesini G, Brizl M, Bianchi G, Tomasselli S, Zoll M, Melchlonda N. Metformin in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Lancet 2001; 358:893894.
  • 48
    Liedtke C, Plumpe J, Kubicka S, Bradham CA, Manns MP, Brenner DA, Trautwein C. Jun kinase modulates tumor necrosis factor-dependent apoptosis in liver cells. Hepatology 2002; 36:315325.
  • 49
    Loguercio C, DeSimone T, Federico A, Terracciano F, Tuccillo C, DiChicco M, Carteni M. Gut-liver axis: a new point of attack to treat chronic liver damage? Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97:21442146.
    Direct Link:
  • 50
    Roden M, Petersen KF, Shulman GI. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of hepatic glucose metabolism in humans. Recent Prog Horm Res 2001; 56:219237.